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AutoCAD® 2013
3D Tutorials
By Kristen S. Kurland

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2012

AutoCAD is a registered trademark of Autodesk, Inc.

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials

AutoCAD 3D – Chapter 1 3D Interface

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials 1.1 Launch AutoCAD
1. Choose Start, Programs, Autodesk , AutoCAD from the Windows program manager. OR 2. Double-click the AutoCAD icon from your desktop.

Workspaces
AutoCAD workspaces are sets of menus, toolbars and dockable windows (such as the Properties palette, DesignCenter, and the Tool palettes window) that are grouped and organized so that you can work in a custom, task-oriented drawing environment. 1. Click the Workspace Switching icon.

2.

Click

3D Basics and OK.

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials 1.2 3D Basics Interface
The following is AutoCAD’s 3D Basic interface. The 3D Basic ribbons are as follows:        Create Edit Draw Modify Selection Coordinates Layers and Views

The 3D Basic pulldown menus are as follows:         Home Render Insert Manage Output Plug-ins Online Express Tools

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials 1.3 3D Modeling Interface
The 3D Modeling panels are as follows:  Modeling  Mesh  Solid Editing  Draw  Modify  Section  Coordinates  View  Selection  Layers and Groups The 3D Modeling pulldown menus are as follows:  Home  Solid  Surfaces  Mesh  Render  Parametric  Insert, Annotate, View, Manage, Output, Plug-ins, Online, and Express Tools

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials 1.4 Viewports
1. 2. Open Click a drawing or create simple objects as shown below. the dropdown menu in the shortcut tools and choose Show Menu Bar.

3.

Choose

View, Viewports, 4 Viewports. OR

4.

Type

-VPORTS at the command prompt. Command: -VPORTS Enter an option [Save/Restore/Delete/Join/SIngle/?/2/3/4] 4: enter Enter a configuration option [Horizontal/Vertical/Above/ Below/Left/Right] <Right>: enter

Your screen will look something like the figure below with four views in one AutoCAD drawing.

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials 1.5 Preset 3D Viewports
1. 2. 3. Choose Click Choose View, Viewports, New Viewports the dropdown option for Setup and click 3D. Four: Right as the viewport option.

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials 1.6 Named Views
1. 2. 3. Choose Click Click View, Named Views… the plus (+) sign beside Preset Views. NE Isometric, Set Current, Apply,and OK.

Tip:
You can also choose View, 3D Views, and any of the preset 3D views.

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials 1.7 Steering Wheel
SteeringWheels are menus that track the cursor over the drawing window, and provide access to 2D and 3D navigation tools from a single interface. SteeringWheels, or “wheels,” are divided into wedges; each wedge contains a single navigation tool. You can start a navigation tool by clicking a wedge or by clicking and dragging the cursor over a wedge.

Full Navigation Wheel
1. Click the Full Navigation Wheel icon.

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials
2D Navigation Wheel (Zoom/Pan)

View Object Wheel – Center a model and define the pivot point to use with the Orbit tool. Zoom and orbit a model. Center

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials
Orbit

Look

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials
Walk/Up/ Down

Rewind

Shortcuts 1. Right-click on the wheel to view shortcuts.

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials
Steering Wheel Settings
1. Right-click on the steering wheel and choose SteeringWheel Settings…

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials 1.8 VPOINT Command (Tripod)
Displays a compass and tripod for defining a view rotation. The compass represents a two dimensional globe. 1. Choose View, 3D Views, Viewpoint or 2. Type VPOINT at the command prompt. Command: VPOINT Rotate/<Viewpoint><-0.614,-0.614,0.500>: PRESS ENTER 3. Click a point on the compass to define the viewing angle.

Point in the center of the compass is the “ north pole”, looking straight down at the drawing

Middle ring of the compass is the “equator”, looking straight on at the drawing.

Entire outer ring is the “south pole”, looking straight up at the drawing. Tripod

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials 1.9 VPOINT Command (Rotate)
Enters a rotation angle at the viewpoint prompt.
1. Type VPOINT at the command prompt. Command: VPOINT Rotate/<View point> <-0.614,-0.614,0.500>: R (enter) Enter angle in XY plane from X axis <225>: 225 (enter) Enter angle from XY plane <30>: 15 (enter)

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials 1.10
1. 2. 3.

DDVPOINT
Choose Type Set View, 3D Views, Viewpoint Preset. or DDVPOINT at the command prompt. Command: DDVPOINT a viewing angle by typing the From X axis and XY Plane angle. or a viewing angle in the 2 graphics Left graphic = From X Axis Right graphic = In XY Plane OK.

4.

Pick

5.

Click

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials 1.11 Plan View

1. 2.

Choose Type

View, 3D Views, Plan View , World UCS. or PLAN at the command prompt. Command: PLAN Enter an option <Current>: World [Current Ucs/Ucs/World]

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials

AutoCAD 3D – Chapter 2 Thickness and Elevation

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials 2.1 Thickness Command
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Begin Choose Press Type Choose Type a new drawing using a 3D Modeling workspace. View, Viewports, 2 Viewports. ENTER for the default of two vertical viewports. PLAN and World in the left viewport. SE Isometric for the right viewport. THICKNESS at the command prompt. Command: THICKNESS Enter new value for THICKNESS <0.0000>: 3 7. Draw a 5”,2” rectangle using in the LINE command in the left view. The lines will have a 3D “thickness” that can be seen in the 3D view.

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials 2.2 Change Existing Thickness
1. Select the object whose thickness you would like to change (e.g. one line of the rectangle you drew in 2.1. 2. Choose Modify, Properties…or right click and choose Properties… 3. Type a new line thickness.

The result is a new line thickness for the selected object.

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials 2.3 Elevation
Stores the elevation for new objects relative to the current UCS for the current space. 1. Type ELEVATION at the command prompt. Command: ELEVATION Enter new value for ELEVATION <0.0000>: 1.00 two circles in the left view at the new elevation. Note that they appear to be “floating” 1 unit above the ground.

2.

Draw

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials 2.4 Elevation Shortcut
1. Type ELEV at the command prompt. Command: ELEV Specify new default elevation: <1.0000>: 2 Specify new default thickness: <3.000>: .5 a new line in the left view to see the elevation and thickness settings.

2.

Draw

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials

AutoCAD 3D – Chapter 3 Visualizing Your Model

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials 3.1 HIDE Command
Regenerates a three-dimensional model with hidden lines

1. 2.

Open Choose

a drawing with 3D objects and display in a 3D view. View, Hide. or

3.

Type

HIDE at the command prompt. Command: HIDE

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials 3.2 Visual Styles
A visual style is a collection of settings that control the display of edges and shading in the viewport.

Open Choose

a drawing with 3D objects and display in a 3D view. View, Visual Styles and one of the following style options.

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials
Visual Styles
2D Wireframe 3D Wireframe 3D Hidden

Realistic

Shaded

Shaded with Edges

Shades of Gray

Sketchy

XRay

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials 3.3 Visual Style Manager
The Visual Styles Manager displays sample images of the visual styles available in the drawing. The selected visual style is indicated by a yellow border, and its settings are displayed in the panel below the sample images. 1. 2. 3. Choose Type Choose View, Visual Styles, Visual Styles Manager… or VISUALSTYLES at the command prompt. Command: VISUALSTYLES the desired option from one of those available in the drawing for 2D Wireframe, 3D Wireframe, 3D Hidden, Realistic, or Conceptual options.

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials 3.4 Visual Styles Panel

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials 3.5 Adaptive 3D Grid
When you choose a shaded or 3D wireframe visual style, the grid changes from a dotted grid to a rectangular grid. The new grid provides a better sense of a model’s orientation in 3D. The rectangular grid supports perspective, can display major and minor grid lines, provides color options, and can automatically control the grid density when zooming in or out (adaptive grid.) You can change the grid settings using the drafting settings dialog box. 1. Choose Tools, Drafting Settings, and the Snap and Grid TAB. 2. Type DSETTINGS at the command prompt. Command: DSETTINGS

TIP:
You can turn the adaptive grid on/off from the status bar.

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials

AutoCAD 3D – Chapter 4 Z Coordinates

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials 4.1 3D Coordinates
Entering 3D Cartesian coordinates (X,Y,Z) is similar to entering 2D coordinates (X,Y). In addition to specifying X and Y values, you specify a Z value.

1. 2.

Open Type

a drawing with 3D objects and display in a 3D view. 3DPoly at the command prompt. Command: 3DPOLY Specify start point of polyline: 1,1,0 Specify endpoint of line or [Undo]: 1,2,1 Specify endpoint of line or [Undo]: 2,2,1 Specify endpoint of line or [Close/Undo]: 2,1,0 Specify endpoint of line or [Close/Undo]: 1,1,0

The result will be the following lines that are drawn in 3D:

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials 4.2 Track in Z Direction
With AutoTrack (polar tracking and object snap tracking), you can track in the Z direction as well as in the XY plane. Similarly, when Ortho mode is turned on, you can lock the cursor to the Z direction.

1.

Press

F11 or click OSnap Tracking on the status bar if it is not already on.

2.

Press

F10 or click Polar Tracking on the status bar if it is not already on.

3.

Draw

a line in the 3D view in the Z direction using tracking.

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials 4.3 Move in Z Direction
1. 2. Open Type a drawing with 3D objects in it. MOVE at the command prompt. Command: move Select objects: pick object in 3D view Select objects: press enter Specify base point or displacement: Specify second point of displacement or <use first point as displacement>: 0,0,1 or use polar tracking to move the object.

before move

after move

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials 4.4 3D Point Filters
Draws in 3D Z direction by filtering X and Y coordinates. 1. Open a drawing with 3D objects in it.

endpoint to filter

Use the CIRCLE command and place it using 3D point filters (.xy) Command: CIRCLE Specify center point for circle or [3P/2P/Ttr (tan tan radius)]: .XY of pick endpoint to filter (need Z): 1 Specify radius of circle or [Diameter] <0.2500>: press enter

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials 4.5 Helix
Creates a 2D or 3D spiral.

1. 2.

Begin Choose

a new drawing. Draw, Helix. or

3.

Type

HELIX at the command prompt. Command: helix Number of turns = 3.0000 Twist=CCW

Specify center point of base: pick point Specify base radius or [Diameter] <1.0000>: enter or drag and pick Specify top radius or [Diameter] <11.0776>: enter or drag and pick Specify helix height or [Axis endpoint/Turns/turn Height/tWist] <1.0000>: enter or drag and pick

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials

AutoCAD 3D – Chapter 5 User Coordinate System

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials 5.1 UCS Icon
The UCS icon represents the orientation of the user coordinate system (UCS) axes and the location of the current UCS origin. It also represents the current viewing direction relative to the XY plane. AutoCAD displays the UCS icon differently for 2D, 3D and Paper Space environments.

3D UCS icons

2D UCSIcon

Pspace UCSICON

1. 2.

Choose Type

View, Display, UCS Icon. or UCSICON at the command prompt. Command: ucsicon Enter an option [ON/OFF/All/Noorigin/ORigin/Properties] <ON>:

ON OFF All Noorigin Origin Properties

Displays the UCS icon. Turns off the display of the UCSICON. Affects the display of the UCSICON in all viewports. Always displays the UCS at the lower left corner. Shows the UCS at the 0,0,0 origin of the current UCS. Changes the display properties of the UCS icons(s).

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials
UCS Icon Properties
1. 1. Choose Type View, Display, UCS Icon, Properties. or UCSICON at the command prompt. Command: ucsicon Enter an option [ON/OFF/All/Noorigin/ORigin/Properties] <ON>: P

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials 5.2 UCS Overview
The user coordinate system provides an alternate movable coordinate system for coordinate entry, planes of operation, and viewing. Most AutoCAD geometric editing commands are dependent on the location and orientation of the UCS. There are a variety of ways to set the User Coordinate System using the UCS command.

1.

Type

UCS at the command prompt. Command: UCS Specify origin of UCS or [Face/NAmed/OBject/Previous/View/World/X/Y/Z/ ZAxis] <World>: Aligns the UCS to the selected face of a solid object. Saves or restores a UCS. Lets you define a new UCS by pointing at an object. Restores the previos UCS. Defines a new coordinate system by one of six methods: Origin, Z Axis, 3 Point, Object, Face, View X, Y, Z Establishes a new UCS whose XY plane is perpendicular to your viewing direction (e.g. parallel to your screen). Restores the world UCS Rotates the ucs around a specified axis

Face Named Object Previous New

View

World X/Y/Z

UCS Toolbars Found under the AutoCAD Classic Toolbars

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials 5.3 New (3 Point) UCS
The 3 Point option is one of the easiest ways to define a new UCS on a given 3D object. 1. Open a drawing with a simple 3D object (e.g. 3D box) 2. Type UCS at the command prompt. Command: UCS Specify origin of UCS or [Face/NAmed/OBject/Previous/View/World/X/Y /Z /ZAxis] <World>:N Specify origin of new UCS or [ZAxis/3point/OBject/ Face/View/X/Y/Z] <0,0,0>: 3 Specify new origin point <0,0,0>: pick origin Specify point on positive portion of X-axis <3.53,7.73,0.00>: pick point for X direction Specify point on positive-Y portion of the UCS XY plane <2.53,8.73,0.00>: pick point for Y direction

Positive Y

New 0,0,0 origin

Positive X

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials
New UCS

TIP: You can also click the dropdown beside WCS and click New UCS.

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials 5.4 Plan UCS
To work in the plan view of your new UCS, use the PLAN command with the current UCS option. New entities that you draw will be in relation to this current UCS.

1.

Type

PLAN at the command prompt. Command: PLAN Enter an option [Current ucs/Ucs/World] <Current>: PRESS ENTER

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials 5.5 World UCS
The World UCS is the only UCS guaranteed to be the same in all AutoCAD drawings and can be used to set the UCS back to its original state. This is the UCS you should use when creating Wblocks and inserting Wblocks. 1. Type UCS at the command prompt. Command: UCS Specify origin of UCS or [Face/NAmed/OBject/Previous/View/World/X/Y /Z /ZAxis] <World>:W

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials 5.6 View UCS
Establishes a new coordinate system whose XY plane is perpendicular to your viewing direction (i.e. parallel to your screen) 1. Type UCS at the command prompt. Command: UCS Specify origin of UCS or [Face/NAmed/OBject/Previous/View/World/X/Y /Z/ZAxis] <World>:V

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials 5.7 Dynamic UCS
You can use the dynamic UCS to create objects on a planar face of a 3D solid without manually changing the UCS orientation. During a command, the dynamic UCS temporarily aligns the XY plane of the UCS with a planar face of a 3D solid when you move the cursor over the face. When the dynamic UCS is active, specified points, and drawing tools, such as polar tracking and the grid, are all relative to the temporary UCS established by the dynamic UCS. 1.

1.

Click

the DUCS icon or

on the status bar

2. 3.

Press Type

CTRL +D. any draw command. Command: CIRCLE

4.

Move

the cursor to the face of the 3D object on which you Would like to draw.

5.

Click

to begin drawing your new object.

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials 5.8 Naming a UCS
User coordinate systems can sometimes be complicated and it is often useful to name and save them so you can quickly recall them.

1.

Type

UCS at the command prompt. Command: UCS Specify origin of UCS or [Face/NAmed/OBject/Previous/View/World/X/Y/Z /ZAxis] <World>NA Enter an option [Restore/Save/Delete/?]: S Enter name to save current UCS or [?]: LeftSide

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials 5.9 Restoring a UCS
A named and saved UCS can be restored at any time.

1.

Type

UCS at the command prompt. Command: UCS Specify origin of UCS or [Face/NAmed/OBject/Previous/View/World/X/Y/Z /ZAxis] <World>NA Enter an option [Restore/Save/Delete/?]: R Enter name to save current UCS or [?]: LeftSide

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials 5.10 UCS Dialog Box
Displays and modifies defined and unnamed user coordinate systems, restores named and orthographic UCSs, and specifies UCS icon and UCS settings for viewports via a dialog box.

1.

Chose

Tools, Named UCS. or

2.

Type

UCSMAN at the command prompt. Command: UCSMAN

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials 5.10 Viewcube
The ViewCube provides visual feedback about the current orientation of a model. The ViewCube can help you adjust the viewpoint of a model. The orientation shown by the ViewCube is based on the North direction of the WCS for the model. The ViewCube also shows the current UCS and allows you to restore a named UCS.

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials

AutoCAD 3D – Chapter 6 3D Orbit

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials 6.1 Constrained 3D Orbit
3DORBIT activates a 3D Orbit view in the current viewport. You can view your entire drawing or select one or more objects before starting the command. When 3DORBIT is active, the target of the view stays stationary and the camera location, or point of view, moves around the target. However, from the user's point of view, it appears as if the 3D model is turning as the mouse cursor is dragged. In this way, you can specify any view of the model.

1. 2.

Open Choose

a drawing with 3D objects. View, Orbit, Constrained Orbit. or

3.

Type

3D Orbit at the command prompt. Command: 3DOrbit

4.

Click

and drag to move your object in 3D.

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials 6.2 Zoom and Pan in 3D Orbit
Zoom
1. 2. Click Choose the right mouse button while in the 3D Orbit command. Zoom Window from the pop-up menu.

3. 4. 5.

Zoom Click Choose

to a new area of the 3D drawing. the right mouse button while in the 3D Orbit command. Zoom Previous or Zoom Extents.

Pan
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Click Choose Choose Pan Click Choose Choose the right mouse button while in the 3D Orbit command. Other Navigation Modes from the pop-up menu. Pan. to a new area of the drawing. the right mouse button while in the 3D Orbit command. Other Navigation Modes from the pop-up menu. Constrained Orbit to set the mode back to orbit.

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials 6.3 Projection Mode
1. 2. Click Choose the right mouse button while in the 3D Orbit command. Perspective.

Perspective view displays objects in perspective so that all parallel lines converge at one point. Objects appear to recede into the distance, and parts of the objects appear larger and closer to you. The shapes are somewhat distorted when the object is very close. This view correlates more closely to what your eye sees. Parallel view displays objects so that two parallel lines in a drawing never con verge at a single point. The shapes in your drawing always remain the same and do not appear distorted when they are closer.

Perspective View

Parallel View

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials 6.4 Visual Styles
Displays your objects in one of the following selected styles: 1. 2. 3. Click Choose Choose the right mouse button while in the 3D Orbit command. Visual Styles from the pop-up menu. one of the Visual Styles.

Visual Style Examples
3D Hidden 3D Wireframe

Conceptual

Realistic

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials 6.5 Visual Aids
1. 2. 3. Compass Click Choose Choose the right mouse button while in the 3D Orbit command. Visual Aids from the pop-up menu. Compass, Grid, or UCS Icon. Grid

UCS Icon

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials 6.6 Preset Views
Sets the 3D view while in the orbit command 1. 2. 3. Click Choose Choose the right mouse button while in the 3D Orbit command. Preset Views from the pop-up menu. one of the following standard 3D views.

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials 6.7 Free Orbit
1. 2. Choose Click View, Orbit, Free Orbit. The 3D Orbit Arcball appears. one of the 3D Orbit Arcball locations to move the display of your object(s).

Outside the Arcball - Moves View about an axis that extends through the center (acts like twist)

Inside one of the small circles to the left/right - Rotates around the “Y” axis through the center.

Inside the Arcball - Allows movement in any direction

Inside one of the small circles to the top/bottom - Rotates around the “X” axis through the center.

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials 6.8 Continuous Orbit
1. 2. 3. Choose Click Press View, Orbit, Continuous Orbit. and drag to define the direction and speed of a continuous orbit for your object(s). ESC on the keyboard to stop the orbit.

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials 6.9 Other Navigational Modes
1. 2. 3. Click Choose Choose the right mouse button while in the 3D Orbit command. Other Navigational Modes from the pop-up menu. one of the following modes.

Adjust Distance (4)

Simulates moving the camera closer to the object or farther away.

Swivel (5)

Changes the cursor to an arched arrow and simulates the effect of swiveling the camera.

Walk (6)

Changes the cursor to a plus sign and enables you to "walk through" a model at a fixed height above the XY plane, by dynamically controlling the location and target of the camera.

Fly (7)

Changes the cursor to a plus sign and enables you to "fly through" a model without being restricted to a fixed height above the XY plane.

Zoom (8)

Changes the cursor to a magnifying glass with plus (+) and minus (-) sign and simulates moving the camera closer to an object or farther away. Works like the Adjust Distance option. Pans the drawing while in the 3D Oribit.

Pan (9)

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials

AutoCAD 3D – Chapter 7 3D Navigation

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials 7.1 Creating a Camera
Sets a camera and target location to create and save a 3D perspective view of objects.

1. 2.

Open Choose

a drawing with 3D objects. View, Create Camera. or

3.

Type

CAMERA at the command prompt. Command: CAMERA Current camera settings: Height=0.0000 Lens Length=50.0000 mm Specify camera location: .XY of (need Z): 7 Specify target location: endp

Enter an option [?/Name/LOcation/Height/Target/LEns/Clipping/View/eXit]<eXit>: X

Camera location using .XY filter and Z height of 7

Camera target

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials 7.2 Viewing a Camera
Once a camera is created, it becomes a named view in the drawing and can be viewed using the Named View Manager. You can also view the camera using the view option when creating the camera.

1.

Choose

View, 3D Views, Southwest Isometric to be sure you are not in an existing camera view.

2. 3. 4.

Choose Click Click

View, Named Views. the plus (+) sign beside Model Views. Camera1, Set Current, Apply, and OK.

View from Camera

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials 7.3 Camera Preview
Camera preview is a quick and easy way to see the properties of a camera before viewing from the camera.

1.

Choose

View, 3D Views, Southwest Isometric to be sure you are not in an existing camera view.

2. 3.

Zoom Click

out until you see the camera in your 3D view. once on a camera in your view.

The Camera Preview dialog box will show the view from the chosen camera. You can change the Visual style of this preview by clicking the Visual Style dropdown.

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials 7.4 Camera Properties
1. 2. Double click Choose a camera in a 3D isometric view, one of the following properties to change.

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials 7.5 Displaying and Plotting a Camera
Displaying a Camera
1. Choose View, Display, Cameras.

Plotting a Camera
1. 2. 3. Click Double-click Click View, Display, Cameras. a camera. Yes under the Plot option.

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials 7.6 Adjusting Camera Distances and Swiveling a Camera
Adjust Camera Distance
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Choose Click Click Choose Click View, Named Views. the plus (+) sign beside Model Views. Camera1, Set Current, Apply, and OK. View,Camera, Adjust Distance. and drag to zoom in or out about the camera,

Swivel a Camera
1. 2. Choose Click View, Camera, Swivel. and drag to swivel the camera,

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials 7.7 DView Command
Defines parallel projection or perspective views by using a camera and target. 1. 2. Choose Type View, 3D Views, SW Isometric. DVIEW at the command prompt. Command: DVIEW Select objects or <use DVIEWBLOCK>: pick objects and press ENTER Enter option [CAmera/TArget/Distance/POints/PAn/Zoom/TWist/C Lip/Hide/Off/Undo]: PO Specify target point <3.2567, 4.0405, 7.2994>: pick target (see below) Specify camera point <-4.0520, -3.2436, 14.3538>: .XY of (need Z): 7 Enter option [CAmera/TArget/Distance/POints/PAn/Zoom/TWist/C Lip/Hide/Off/Undo]: D Specify new camera-target distance <8.3066>: click and drag new zoom Enter option [CAmera/TArget/Distance/POints/PAn/Zoom/TWist/ CLip/Hide/Off/Undo]: Regenerating model.

Camera location using .XY filter and Z height of 7 Camera target

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials
New perspective view

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials 7.8 Walk and Fly
You can simulate walking and flying through a 3D drawing. When you walk through a model, you travel along the XY plane. When you fly through a model, you are not constrained by the XY plane, so you appear to “fly” over an area in a model. The following shortcuts are available for walking: Up arrow / W key Down arrow / S key Left arrow / A key Right arrow / D key Drag mouse Move forward Move backward Move left Move right Look around & turn

1. 2.

Open Create

a drawing with 3D objects and display in a 3D view. a camera anywhere in the drawing and set the view to that camera.

3.

Choose

View, Walk and Fly, and Walk. or

4.

Type

3DWalk or 3DFky at the command prompt. Command: 3DWALK

The following Position Locator dialog box will appear that you can use to navigate your drawing.

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials
5. Press the Up, Down, Left, and Right keys on the keyboard to see how the camera location moves in the drawing and Position Locator dialog box. 6. Move the camera and target in the Position Locator dialog box. 7. Click and drag your mouse to “fly” through the drawing.

8.

Close

the Position Locator dialog box and try walking and flying using only the keys on the keyboard and mouse.

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials 7.9 Walk and Fly Settings
1. Choose View, Walk and Hide, Walk and Hide Settings. or 2. Type WALKFLYSETTINGS at the command prompt. Command: WALKFLYSETTINGS 3. Choose one of the following settings from the Walk and Fly dialog box.

If you are working in a drawing with a large architectural scale, be sure to set your drawing units to a large number, similar to the scale of the drawing.

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials 7.10 Animation Paths
1. 2. Open Draw a drawing with 3D objects and display in a 3D view. a line or polyline representing a path for an animation

3.

Choose

View, Motion Path Animations. or

4.

Type

ANIPATH at the command prompt. Command: ANIPATH

5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11.

Select Click Type Select Click Type Change

Path under the Link camera to: option the line or polyline path. Path1 as the default path name. Path under the Link target to: option on the line or polyline path. Path2 as the default path name. other animation settings such as the frames per second, duration, resolution, etc.

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials
12. Choose the Preview…button to preview your animation.

13.

Close

the animation preview and click OK to create an animation file.

14.

Play

your animation in a PC or MacIntosh video review application such as Media Player or Quicktime.

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials

AutoCAD 3D – Chapter 8 3D Model Objects

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials 8.1 Wireframes
A wireframe model is a skeletal description of a 3D object. There are no surfaces in a wireframe model; it consists only of points, lines, and curves that describe the edges of the object. With AutoCAD you can create wireframe models by positioning 2D objects anywhere in 3D space. AutoCAD also provides some 3D wireframe objects, such as 3D polylines (that can only have a CONTINUOUS linetype) and splines. Because each object that makes up a wireframe model must be independently drawn and positioned, this type of modeling can be the most time-consuming.

Wireframe lines in 3D

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials 8.2 Surfaces
Surface modeling is more sophisticated than wireframe modeling in that it defines not only the edges of a 3D object, but also its surfaces. The AutoCAD surface modeler defines faceted surfaces using a polygonal mesh. Because the faces of the mesh are planar, the mesh can only approximate curved surfaces.

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials 8.3 Solids
Solid modeling is the easiest type of 3D modeling to use. With the AutoCAD solid modeler, you can make 3D objects by creating basic 3D shapes: boxes, cones, cylinders, spheres, wedges, and tori (do- nuts). You can then combine these shapes to create more complex solids by joining or subtracting them or finding their intersecting (over- lapping) volume. You can also create solids by sweeping a 2D object along a path or revolving it about an axis.

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials

AutoCAD 3D – Chapter 9 2D Solids and 3D Faces

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials 9.1 2D Solid
Creates solid-filled triangles and quadrilaterals.

1.

Type

SOLID at the command prompt. Command: SOLID First point: P1 Second point: P2 Third point: P3 Fourth point: P4 Third point: enter

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials 9.2 3D Faces
3DFACE creates a three or four sided surface anywhere in 3D space. You can specify different Z coordinates for each corner point of a 3D face. 3DFACE differs from SOLID, which creates a three- or four-sided surface that is parallel to the current UCS and can be extruded. 1. 2. 3. Begin Set Type a new drawing. the visual style to Conceptual. 3DFACE at the command prompt. Command: 3DFACE First point: pick Second point: pick Third point: pick Fourth point: pick Third point: enter

3D Wireframe Lines

3D Face

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials 9.3 3D Face Invisible Edge
With 3DFACE, you control which edges of a 3D face are visible, allowing accurate modeling of objects with holes. Entering i or invisible before the first point of an edge makes the edge invisible.Type 3DFACE at the command prompt. 1. 2. 3. Draw Set Type an irregular shaped object similar to the one shown below. the visual style to Conceptual. 3DFACE at the command prompt. Command: 3DFACE First point: P1 Second point: P2 Third point: i P3 Fourth point: P4 Third point: i P5 Fourth point: P6 Third point: P7 Fourth point: P8 Third point: enter NOTE: You must enter an “i” for invisible before the face is chosen.

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials 9.4 Edge Command
1. Type EDGE at the command prompt. Command: EDGE Specify edge of 3dface to toggle visibility or [Display]: pick edge

Pick edge

Specify edge of 3dface to toggle visibility or [Display]: D Enter selection method for display of hidden edges [Select/All] <All>: A Regenerating 3DFACE objects...done. Specify edge of 3dface to toggle visibility or [Display]: press enter

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials
9.5 PFace Creates a three-dimensional polyface mesh vertex by vertex

1.

Type

PFACE at the command prompt. Command: PFACE Specify location for vertex 1: pick point 1 Specify location for vertex 2 or <define faces>: pick point 2 Specify location for vertex 3 or <define faces>: pick point 3 Specify location for vertex 4 or <define faces>: pick point 4 Specify location for vertex 5 or <define faces>: pick point 5 Specify location for vertex 6 or <define faces>: pick point 6 Specify location for vertex 7 or <define faces>: pick point 7 Specify location for vertex 8 or <define faces>: enter Face 1, vertex 1: Enter a vertex number or [Color/Layer]: 1 (enter) Face 1, vertex 2: Enter a vertex number or [Color/Layer] <next face>: 2 (enter) Face 1, vertex 3: Enter a vertex number or [Color/Layer] <next face>: 6 (enter) Face 1, vertex 4: Enter a vertex number or [Color/Layer] <next face>: 7 (enter) Face 1, vertex 5: enter Enter a vertex number or [Color/Layer] <next face>: Face 2, vertex 1: Enter a vertex number or [Color/Layer]: 2 (enter) Face 2, vertex 2: Enter a vertex number or [Color/Layer] <next face>: 3 (enter) Face 2, vertex 3: Enter a vertex number or [Color/Layer] <next face>: 4 (enter) Face 2, vertex 4:

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials
Enter a vertex number or [Color/Layer] <next face>: 6 (enter) Face 2, vertex 5: Enter a vertex number or [Color/Layer] <next face>: Face 3, vertex 1: Enter a vertex number or [Color/Layer]: 4 (enter) Face 3, vertex 2: Enter a vertex number or [Color/Layer] <next face>: 5 (enter) Face 3, vertex 3: Enter a vertex number or [Color/Layer] <next face>: 6 (enter) Face 3, vertex 4: Enter a vertex number or [Color/Layer] <next face>: Face 4, vertex 1: enter Enter a vertex number or [Color/Layer]:

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials

AutoCAD 3D – Chapter 10 Basic 3D Surfaces

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials 10.1 Basic Mesh Commands
1. 2. 3. 4. Click Click Click Click the 3D Modeling dropdown option from the Solids panel. the Mesh tab. the Primitives panel. the Primitive drop-down.

Mesh Primitive Options
The following settings can be adjusted for mesh primitives.

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials
Mesh Box
1. Choose Mesh box from the Primitives panel. Command: MESH Current smoothness level is set to : 0 Enter an option [Box/Cone/CYlinder/Pyramid/Sphere/Wedge/Torus/ SEttings] <Box>: _BOX Specify first corner or [Center]: pick point Specify other corner or [Cube/Length]: @4,2 Specify height or [2Point] <3.0000>: 2

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials Mesh Cone
1. Choose Mesh cone from the Primitives panel. Command: MESH Current smoothness level is set to : 0 Enter an option [Box/Cone/CYlinder/Pyramid/Sphere/Wedge/Torus/S Ettings] <C one>: CONE Specify center point of base or [3P/2P/Ttr/Elliptical]: Specify base radius or [Diameter] <1.5074>: 2 Specify height or [2Point/Axis endpoint/Top radius] <2.0000>: 5

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials Mesh Cylinder
1. Choose Mesh cylinder from the Primitives panel. Command: MESH Current smoothness level is set to : 0 Enter an option [Box/Cone/CYlinder/Pyramid/Sphere/Wedge/Torus/ SEttings] <Cylinder>: CYLINDER Specify center point of base or [3P/2P/Ttr/Elliptical]: Specify base radius or [Diameter] <2.0000>: 2 Specify height or [2Point/Axis endpoint] <5.0000>: 8

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials Mesh Pyramid
1. Choose Mesh pyramid from the Primitives panel. Command: MESH Current smoothness level is set to : 0 Enter an option [Box/Cone/CYlinder/Pyramid/Sphere/Wedge/Torus/S Ettings] <Pyramid>: PYRAMID 4 sides Circumscribed Specify center point of base or [Edge/Sides]: Specify base radius or [Inscribed] <2.0000>: Specify height or [2Point/Axis endpoint/Top radius] <8.0000>: 4

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials Mesh Sphere
1. Choose Mesh sphere from the Primitives panel. Command: MESH Current smoothness level is set to : 0 Enter an option [Box/Cone/CYlinder/Pyramid/Sphere/Wedge/Torus/S Ettings] <Pyramid>: SPHERE Specify center point or [3P/2P/Ttr]: Specify radius or [Diameter] <2.0000>:

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials Mesh Wedge
1. Choose Mesh wedge from the Primitives panel. Command: MESH Current smoothness level is set to : 0 Enter an option [Box/Cone/CYlinder/Pyramid/Sphere/Wedge/Torus/S Ettings] <Wedge>: WEDGE Specify first corner or [Center]: Specify other corner or [Cube/Length]: @4,2 Specify height or [2Point] <4.0000>: 2

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials Mesh Torus
1. Choose Mesh torus from the Primitives panel. Command: MESH Current smoothness level is set to : 0 Enter an option [Box/Cone/CYlinder/Pyramid/Sphere/Wedge/Torus/S Ettings] <Wedge>: TORUS Specify center point or [3P/2P/Ttr]: Specify radius or [Diameter] <2.0000>: 6 Specify tube radius or [2Point/Diameter]: 1

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials 10.2 Mesh Tesselations
By default, new mesh primitives are created with no smoothness. To change the default smoothness, enter mesh at the Command prompt. Specify the Settings option before you specify the type of mesh primitive you want to create. 1. Type MESH at the command prompt. Command: MESH Enter an option [Box/Cone/CYlinder/Pyramid/Sphere/Wedge /Torus/SEttings] <Box>: SE Specify level of smoothness or [Tessellation] <0>: 3 Enter an option [Box/Cone/CYlinder/Pyramid/Sphere/Wedge/ Torus/SEttings] <Box>: BOX Specify first corner or [Center]: pick point Specify other corner or [Cube/Length]: @5,5 Specify height or [2Point] <3.0000>:

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials 10.3 Mesh Smooth
Converts 3D faces (3DFACE) and legacy polygonal and polyface meshes (from AutoCAD 2009 and earlier). You can also convert 2D objects such as regions and closed polylines. The default mesh settings are defined in the Mesh Tessellation Options dialog box. The level of smoothness upon conversion depends on the mesh type setting in this dialog box. If the mesh type is not set to be optimized, the converted object is not smoothed 1. Type MESHSMOOTH at the command prompt. Command: MESHSMOOTH Select objects to convert: pick object Select objects to convert: press enter Create mesh.

2.

Click

2D Polyline before MESHSMOOTH

2D Polyline after MESHSMOOTH

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials 10.4 Smooth and Refine Meshes
The following commands control the smoothness of mesh objects.

Meshsmoothmore
Increases the level of smoothness for mesh objects by one level. 1. Type MESHSMOOTHMORE at the command prompt. Command: MESHSMOOTHMORE Select mesh objects to increase the smoothness level: pick object. Mesh before smooth increase Mesh after smooth increase

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials
Meshsmoothless
Decreases the level of smoothness for mesh objects by one level. 1. Type MESHSMOOTHLESS at the command prompt. Command: MESHSMOOTHLESS Select mesh objects to increase the smoothness level: pick object. Mesh before smooth decrease Mesh after smooth decrease

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials
Meshsmoothrefine
Multiplies the number of faces in selected mesh objects or faces. . 1. Type MESHREFINE at the command prompt. Command: '_MESHREFINE Select mesh object or face subobjects to refine: pick object Select mesh object or face subobjects to refine: 1 object(s) found. Mesh refine before

Mesh refine after

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials 10.5 Add and Remove Mesh Creases
Meshcrease
Sharpens the edges of selected mesh subobjects. 1. Type MESHCREASE at the command prompt. Command: MESHCREASE Select mesh subobjects to crease: select objects Specify crease value [Always] <Always>: enter

Before crease

Selected objects

After crease

TIPS: Crease value Sets highest smoothing level at which the crease is retained. If the smoothing level exceeds this value, the crease is also smoothed. Enter a value of 0 to remove an existing crease. Always Specifies that the crease is always retained, even if the object or subobject is smoothed or refined. A crease value of -1 is the same as Always.

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials
Meshuncrease
Removes the crease from selected mesh faces, edges, or vertices. . 1. Type MESHUNCREASE at the command prompt. Command: MESHUNCREASE Select crease to remove: pick object Select crease to remove: press enter Selected objects After uncrease

Before uncrease

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials 10.6 Editing Meshes
Meshextrude
Extends a mesh face into 3D space. 1. Type MESHEXTRUDE at the command prompt. Command: _MESHEXTRUDE Adjacent extruded faces set to: Join Select mesh face(s) to extrude or [Setting]: pick object(s) Select mesh face(s) to extrude or [Setting]: Specify height of extrusion or [Direction/Path/ Taper angle] <0.5000>: 1

Selected mesh face

Extruded

mesh

face

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials
Meshsplit
Splits a mesh face into 2 faces. 1. Type MESHSPLIT at the command prompt. Command: _MESHSPLIT Select a mesh face to split: (pick object)

Specify first split point on face edge or [Vertex]:MID of Specify second split point on face edge or [Vertex]: MID of

MIDpoint MIDpoint

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials
Mergeface
Merges adjacent faces into a single face. 1. Type MESHMERGE at the command prompt. Command: _MESHMERGE Select adjacent mesh faces to merge: (pick object) Select adjacent mesh faces to merge: (pick object) Select adjacent mesh faces to merge: press enter

Selected mesh faces

Resultant merge

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials
Meshcap (Close Hole)
Creates a mesh face that connects open edges.. 1. Type MESHCAP at the command prompt. Command: _MESHCAP Select connecting mesh edges to create a new mesh face: (pick objects) Select connecting mesh edges to create a new mesh face: press enter Mesh object before Selected mesh edges

Closed “hole”

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials Converting Meshes
Converts objects to surfaces. Objects that can be converted to surfaces include the following: 2D solids, 3D solids, Regions, open, zero-width polylines with thickness, lines with thickness, arcs with thickness, mesh objects, planar 3D faces 1. Type CONVTOSURFACE at the command prompt. Command: CONVTOSURFACE Mesh conversion set to: Smooth and optimized. Select objects: pick object Select objects: press enter

PLine with thickness

New converted mesh

Smooth options

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials

AutoCAD 3D – Chapter 11 Complex Surfaces

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials 11.1 Revolved Surfaces
Regenerates a three-dimensional model with hidden lines

1.

Type

REVSURF at the command prompt. Command: REVSURF Current wire frame density: SURFTAB1=6 SURFTAB2=6 Select object to revolve: pick path curve Select object that defines the axis of revolution: pick line Specify start angle <0>: enter Specify included angle (+=ccw, -=cw) <360>: enter

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials 11.2 Surftab Variables
Sets the number of tabulations for both directions to be generated for RULESURF and TABSURF. Also sets the mesh density in ROTATE3D the M direction for REVSURF and EDGESURF commands. 1. Type Surftab1 at the command prompt. Command: SURFTAB1 Enter new value for SURFTAB1 <6>: 30 Surftab2 at the command prompt. Command: SURFTAB2 Enter new value for SURFTAB2 <6>: 30 Revsurf at the command prompt. Command: REVSURF Current wire frame density: SURFTAB1=30 SURFTAB2=30 Select object to revolve: pick path curve Select object that defines the axis of revolution: pick line Specify start angle <0>: enter Specify included angle (+=ccw, -=cw) <360>: press enter

2.

Type

3.

Type

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials 11.3 Tabulated Surfaces
1. Type TABSURF at the command prompt. Command: TABSURF Select object for path curve: Select object for direction vector:

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials 11.4 Ruled Surfaces
1. Type RULESURF at the command prompt. Command: rulesurf Current wire frame density: SURFTAB1=6 Select first defining curve: P1 Select second defining curve: P2

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials 11.5 Edge Surfaces
Regenerates a three-dimensional model with hidden lines

1.

Type

EDGESURF at the command prompt. Command: EDGESURF Current wire frame density: SURFTAB1=20 SURFTAB2=10 Select object 1 for surface edge: P1 Select object 2 for surface edge: P2 Select object 3 for surface edge: P3 Select object 4 for surface edge: P4

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials 11.6 Planesurf
Creates a planar surface by selecting a closed object or by creating a rectangular plane. 1. Type PLANESURF at the command prompt. Command: PLANESURF Specify first corner or [Object] <Object>: press enter Select objects: pick object Select objects: press enter

Planar surface

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials 11.7 Extrude Surfaces
Creates a 3D solid or surface by extending the dimensions of an object. 1. Type EXTRUDE at the command prompt. Command: EXTRUDE Current wire frame density: ISOLINES=4, Closed profiles creation mode = Surface Select objects to extrude or [MOde]: pick object creation mode [SOlid/SUrface] <Solid>: _su Select objects to extrude or [MOde]:enter Specify height of extrusion or [Direction/Path/Taper angle/Expression] <1.4581>: 10

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials 11.8 Loft Command
Creates a 3D solid or surface in the space between several cross sections.. 1. Type LOFT at the command prompt. Command: LOFT Current wire frame density: ISOLINES=4, Closed profiles creation mode = Surface Select cross sections in lofting order or [POint/Join multiple edges/MOde]: select object Select cross sections in lofting order or [POint/Join multiple edges/MOde]: select object Select cross sections in lofting order or [POint/Join multiple edges/MOde]: select o bject Select cross sections in lofting order or [POint/Join multiple edges/MOde]: 3 cross sections selected Enter an option [Guides/Path/Cross sections only/Settings] <Cross sections only>: press enter

Objects before

Surfaces using loft

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials 11.9 Sweep Command
Creates a 3D surface by sweeping a 2D or 3D curve along a path. 1. Type SWEEP at the command prompt. Command: SWEEP Current wire frame density: ISOLINES=4, Closed profiles creation mode = Surface Select objects to sweep or [MOde]: select object Select objects to sweep or [MOde]: select path (line) Select sweep point/Scale/Twist]: path or [Alignment/Base

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials 11.10 Surface Network
One way to create surfaces is with a network of curves. The SURFNETWORK command creates a surface similar to a lofted surface from a network of curves in the U and V directions. A network surface also can be created from curves that are not all connected. The resulting surface can be either a procedural surface or a NURBS surface. 1. Type SURFNETWORK at the command prompt. Command: SURFNETWORK

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials 11.11 Revolve Surface
One way to create surfaces is with a network of curves. The SURFNETWORK command creates a surface similar to a lofted surface from a network of curves in the U and V directions. A network surface also can be created from curves that are not all connected. The resulting surface can be either a procedural surface or a NURBS surface. 1. Type REVOLVE at the command prompt. Command: REVOLVE Current wire frame density: ISOLINES=4, Closed profiles creation mode = Surface Select objects to revolve or [MOde]: select object Select objects to revolve or [MOde]: press enter Specify axis start point or define axis by [Object/X/Y/Z] <Object>: select endpoints of sxis Specify axis endpoint: Specify angle of revolution or [STart angle/Reverse/EXpression] <360>: press enter

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials 11.12 Surface Blend
Creates a blend surface between two existing surfaces. 1. Type SURFBLEND at the command prompt. Command: SURFBLEND

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials 11.13 Surface Patch
Creates a new surface or cap to close an open edge of an existing surface. 1. Type SURFPATCH at the command prompt. Command: SURFPATCH

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials 11.14 Offsetting Surfaces
Creates a parallel surface at a specified distance from the original surface. 1. Type SURFOFFSET at the command prompt. Command: SURFOFFSET

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials 11.15 Editing Surfaces
Surface Fillet
1. Type SURFFILLET at the command prompt. Command: SURFFILLET

Surface Trim
1. Type SURFTRIM at the command prompt. Command: SURFTRIM

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials
Surface UnTrim
1. Type SURFUNTRIM at the command prompt. Command: SURFUNTRIM

Surface Extend
1. Type SURFEXTEND at the command prompt. Command: SURFEXTEND

Surface Suplt
1. Type SURFSCULPT at the command prompt. Command: SURFSCULPT

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials Surface CV Edit Bar
Adds and edits control vertices on a NURBS surface or spline

1.

Type

SURFSCULPT at the command prompt. Command: SURFSCULPT

Convert to NURBS
1. Type CONVTONURBS at the command prompt. Command: CONVTONURBS

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials 11.16 NURB Vertex Controls
Surface CV - Show
Shows NURB vertices. 1. Type CVSHOW at the command prompt. Command: CVSHOW

Surface CV - Hide
Hides NURB vertices. 1. Type CVHIDE at the command prompt. Command: CVHIDE

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials
Surface CV Rebuild
Rebuilds control vertices of NURBS surfaces or spline 1. Type CVREBUILD at the command prompt. Command: CVREBUILD

Surface CV Add
Adds control vertices of NURBS surfaces or spline 1. Type CVADD at the command prompt. Command: CVADD

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials
Surface Remove
Removes control vertices of NURBS surfaces or spline 1. Type CVREMOVE at the command prompt. Command: CVREMOVE

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials 11.17 Surface Analysis
Analysis Zebra
Projects parallel lines onto a model to help you analyze surface continuity. The way the stripes line up where two surfaces meet helps analyze the tangency and curvature of the intersection. 1. Type ANALYSISZEBRA at the command prompt. Command: ANALYSISZEBRA

Analysis Curvature
Displays a color gradient onto a surface so you can evaluate the high and low areas of curvature.. 1. Type ANALYSISCURVATURE at the command prompt. Command: ANALYSISCURVATURE

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials
Analysis Draft
Displays a color gradient onto a surface so you can evaluate if a model has adequate draft between a part and its mold 1. Type ANALYSISDRAFT at the command prompt. Command: ANALYSISDRAFT

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials 11.18 Work with Associative Surfaces and Constraints SURFACEASSOCIATIVITY
Like hatch and dimensions, surfaces can also be associative. When a surface is moved or modified, any associated surface is adjusted automatically. In this illustration, the boat is made up of four surfaces. When one of the sides is stretched and reshaped, all associated surfaces adjust accordingly. Use the SURFACEASSOCIATIVITY system variable to turn associativity on and off. Associativity also allows you to apply mathematical expressions and parametric constraints to surfaces. Mathematical expressions can be applied to surface properties such as radius and height. For example, you can specify that the height of a surface is always one half of the length of a solid box. Parametric constraints restrict the relative position of one object to another. In this example, the arc that was extruded to create the surface is locked in a fixed position. When you edit the associated surface, the arc surface stays in place.

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials

AutoCAD 3D – Chapter 12 Creating Solids

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials 12.1 Solid Primitives
Solid primitives can easily be drawn from from the 3D Modeling panel, Solid Panel .

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials 12.2 Polysolid Command
With the POLYSOLID command, you can convert an existing line, 2D polyline, arc, or circle to a solid with a rectangular profile. A polysolid can have curved segments, but the profile is always rectangular by default.

1.

Open

a drawing with a closed 2D polyline and display in a 3D view.

2.

Type

POLYSOLID at the command prompt. Command: polysolid Specify start point or [Object/Height/Width/Justify] <Object>: h Specify height <0'-4">: 10 Specify start point or [Object/Height/Width/Justify] <Object>: o Select object: Pick polygon

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials 12.3 Extrude
Creates unique solid primitives by extruding existing two-dimensional objects. You can extrude multiple objects with EXTRUDE.

1.

Type

EXTRUDE at the command prompt. Command: extrude Current wire frame density: ISOLINES=4 Select objects: pick objects Select objects: enter Specify height of extrusion or [Direction/Path/Taper angle]: 2

Lines with a Thickness of 2”

Lines Extruded 2”

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials 12.4 Extrude with Taper
1. Choose Draw, Modeling, Extrude. or 2. Type EXTRUDE at the command prompt. Command: extrude Current wire frame density: ISOLINES=4 Select objects to extrude: pick object to extrude Select objects to extrude: enter Specify height of extrusion or [Direction/Path/Taper angle] <8.9509>: T Specify angle of taper for extrusion <0>: 15 Specify height of extrusion or [Direction/Path/Taper angle] <8.9509>: 4

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials 12.5 Extrude with Path
1. Type EXTRUDE at the command prompt. Command: extrude Current wire frame density: ISOLINES=4 Select objects to extrude: 1 found Select objects to extrude: pick circle (P1) Specify height of extrusion or [Direction/Path/Taper angle] <4.0000>: p Select extrusion path or [Taper angle]: pick P2

Circle Extruded Along a Path

Hidden Line Removal of Extruded Circle

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials 12.6 Revolve Command
1. 2. Open Type a drawing with 3D objects and display in a 3D view. REVOLVE at the command prompt. Command: revolve Current wire frame density: ISOLINES=4 Select objects: pick profile Select objects: enter Specify start point for axis of revolution or define axis by [Object/X (axis)/Y (axis)]: o Select an object: pick axis Specify angle of revolution <360>: enter

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials 12.7 Sweep Command
1. Open a drawing with 2D objects to sweep and display in a 3D view. 2. Type SWEEP at the command prompt. Command: sweep Current wire frame density: ISOLINES=4 Select objects to sweep: pick arc Select objects to sweep: Select sweep path or [Alignment/Base point/Scale/Twist]: pick path

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials 12.8 Loft Command
1. Open a drawing with 2D objects to sweep and display in a 3D view. 2. Type LOFT at the command prompt. Command: loft Select cross-sections in lofting order: pick circles Specify opposite corner: 5 found Select cross-sections in lofting order: Enter an option [Guides/Path/Cross-sections only] <Cross-sections only>: enter

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials

AutoCAD 3D – Chapter 13 3D Edits

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials 13.1 Convert to Solid
Converts polylines and circles with thickness to 3D solids. With the CONVTOSOLID command, you can convert the following objects into extruded 3D solids: Uniform-width wide polylines with thickness Closed, zero-width polylines with thickness Circles with thickness You cannot use CONVTOSOLID with polylines that contain vertices with 0 width or that contain segments of variable width

1.

Open

a drawing with 2D polylines or circles with thicknesses and display in a 3D view.

2.

Choose

Modify, 3D Operation, Convert to Solid. or

3.

Type

CONVTSOLID at the command prompt. Command: convtosolid Select objects: pick circle or polyline 1 found Select objects: press enter

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials 13.2 Convert to Surface
Converts polylines and circles with thickness to surfaces.

1.

Open

a drawing with 2D polylines or circles with thicknesses and display in a 3D view.

2.

Choose

Modify, 3D Operation, Convert to Surface. or

3.

Type

CONVTSURFACE at the command prompt. Command: convtosurface Select objects: 1 found Select objects:

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials 13.3 3D Move
Displays the move grip tool in a 3D view and moves objects a specified distance. 1. 2. Open Choose a drawing with 3D objects and display in a 3D view. Modify, 3D Operations, 3DMove. or 3. Type 3DMOVE at the command prompt. Command: 3Dmove Select objects: pick object to move 1 found Select objects: enter Specify base point or [Displacement] <Displacement>: D Specify displacement <0.0000, 0.0000, 0.0000>: 0,0,2

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials 13.4 3D Rotate
1. 2. Open Choose a drawing with 3D objects and display in a 3D view. Modify, 3D Operations, 3DRotate. or 3. Type 3DROTATE at the command prompt. Command: 3DROTATE Current positive angle in UCS: ANGDIR=counterclockwise ANGBASE=0 Select objects: pick object and press enter Specify base point: pick point Pick a rotation axis: select X axis Specify angle start point: -90

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials 13.5 3DAlign
1. 2. Open Choose a drawing with 3D objects and display in a 3D view. Modify, 3D Operations, 3DAlign. or 3. Type 3DALIGN at the command prompt. Command: 3DALIGN Select objects: pick and press enter Specify source plane and orientation ... Specify base point or [Copy]: Specify second point or [Continue] <C>: Specify third point or [Continue] <C>: Specify destination plane and orientation ... Specify first destination point: Specify second destination point or [eXit] <X>: Specify third destination point or [eXit] <X>

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials 13.6 3D Mirror
1. 2. Open Choose a drawing with 3D objects and display in a 3D view. Modify, 3D Operations, 3DMirror. or 3. Type MIRROR3D at the command prompt. Command: mirror3D Select objects: pick the circle Select objects: enter Specify first point of mirror plane (3 points) or [Object/Last/Zaxis/View/XY/YZ/ZX/3points] <3points>: P1 Specify second point on mirror plane: P2 Specify third point on mirror plane: P3 Delete source objects? [Yes/No] <N>: enter
Circle Mirrored around 3 Points

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials 13.7 3D Rectangular Array
1. 2. 3. Open Choose Type a drawing with 3D objects and display in a 3D view. Modify, 3D Operations, 3DArray. or 3DARRAY at the command prompt. Command: 3darray Select objects: pick object and press enter Enter the type of array [Rectangular/Polar] <R>: R Enter the number of rows (---) <1>: 3 Enter the number of columns (|||) <1>: 4 Enter the number of levels (...) <1>: 2 Specify the distance between rows (---): 5 Specify the distance between columns (|||): 4 Specify the distance between levels (...): 8

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials 13.8 3D Polar Array
1. 2. Open Choose a drawing with 3D objects and display in a 3D view. Modify, 3D Operations, 3DArray. or 3. Type 3DARRAY at the command prompt. Command: 3darray Select objects: pick cube Select objects: enter Enter the type of array [Rectangular/Polar] <R>: P Enter the number of items in the array: 5 Specify the angle to fill (+=ccw, -=cw) <360>: enter Rotate arrayed objects? [Yes/No] <Y>: enter Specify center point of array: mid of axis line Specify second point on axis of rotation: pick

Arrayed Objects Around a Line

Arrayed Objects in Plan View

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials 13.9 Extract Edges
1. 2. 3. Open Choose Type a drawing with 3D objects and display in a 3D view. Modify, 3D Operations, Extract Edges. or XEDGES at the command prompt. Command: _xedges Select objects: pick object Select objects: enter

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials 13.10 Facetres
Adjusts the smoothness of shaded and rendered objects and objects with hidden lines removed. Valid values are from 0.01 to 10.0.

1. 2.

Open Type

a drawing with 3D objects and display in a 3D view. FACETRES at the command prompt. Command: FACETRES Enter new value for FACETRES <0.5000>: 10

Facetres=.1

Facetres=10

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials 13.11 Isolines
1. 2. Open Type a drawing with 3D objects and display in a 3D view. ISOLINES at the command prompt. Command: isolines Enter new value for ISOLINES <4>: 20 Command: regen REGEN Regenerating model.

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials 13.12 Edge Effects
1. 2. Open Choose a drawing with 3D objects and display in a 3D view. one of the edge effects from the View, Visual Styles ribbon panel.

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials

AutoCAD 3D – Chapter 14 Solid Composites

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials 14.1 Union
1. 2. Open Choose a drawing with 3D objects and display in a 3D view. Modify, Solids Editing, Union. or 3. Type UNION at the command prompt. Command: UNION Select objects: pick objects to union Select objects: ENTER

Solid Objects Unioned Together

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials 14.2 Subtract
1. 2. Open Choose a drawing with 3D objects and display in a 3D view. Modify, Solids Editing, Subtract. or 3. Type SUBTRACT at the command prompt. Command: SUBTRACT SUBTRACT Select solids and regions to subtract from... Select objects: pick the main box Select objects: (press enter) Select solids and regions to subtract... Select objects: pick the other solids Select objects: enter

Objects Subtracted from Box

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials 14.3 Intersect
1. 2. Choose Type Modify, Solids Editing, Intersect or INTERSECT at the command prompt. Command: INTERSECT Select objects: pick objects Select objects: enter

Intersection of Cylinder and Box

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials 14.4 Thicken
Creates a 3D solid by thickening a surface.

1. 2.

Open Choose

a drawing with 3D surface and display in a 3D view. Modify, 3D Operation, Thicken. or

3.

Type

THICKEN at the command prompt. Command: THICKEN Select surfaces to thicken: 1 found Select surfaces to thicken: Specify thickness <0.0000>: 1

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials 14.5 Interference Checking
Highlights 3D solids that overlap.

1.

Open

a drawing with 3D objects that overlap and display in a 3D view.

2.

Choose

Modify, 3D Operations, Interference Checking. or

3.

Type

INTERFERE at the command prompt. Command: INTERFERE Select first set of objects or [Nested selection/Settings]: pick solids surrounding rectangle and and press enter.

Select second set of objects or [Nested selection/checK first set] <checK>: pick rectangle and press enter Solids that interfere will highlight in red.

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials
The following dialog box allows you to change the zoom and display of the drawing to better see the interfering objects. You can also choose to retain the interference objects by turning the check box off for “Delete interference objects created on Close”

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials

AutoCAD 3D – Chapter 15 Modifying Solid Faces

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials 15.1 Extrude Face
1. 2. Choose Choose Modify, Solid Editing, Extrude face. NOTE: Must be a solid to extrude the face. a face to extrude. If you choose more than one face, hold the SHIFT key to deselect unwanted faces. ENTER. height of extrusion or [Path]: .25 angle of taper for extrusion <0>: 45
Select Face

3. 4. 5.

Press Specify Specify

Extruded Face

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials 15.2 Taper Face
1. 2. Choose Choose Modify, Solid Editing, Taper face. a face(s) to taper. If you choose more than one face, hold the SHIFT key to deselect unwanted faces. ENTER. the base point: pick the back left corner another point along the axis of tapering: pick point the taper angle: 45 validation started. Solid validation completed.

3. 4. 5. 6.

Press Specify Specify Specify Solid

Before Taper

After Taper

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials 15.3 Delete Face
1. 2. Choose Choose Modify, Solid Editing, Delete face. a face to delete. If you choose more than one face, hold the SHIFT key to deselect unwanted faces. ENTER. the face to delete.

3. 4.

Press Choose

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials 15.4 Copy Face
1. 2. Choose Choose Modify, Solid Editing, Copy face. a face to copy . If you choose more than one face, hold the SHIFT key to deselect unwanted faces. ENTER. the solid face to copy. a new location.

3. 4. 5.

Press Pick Pick

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials 15.5 Color Face
1. 2. Choose Choose Modify, Solid Editing, Color face. a face to change the color of. If you choose more than one face, hold the SHIFT key to deselect unwanted faces. ENTER. a color to change the face to.

3. 4.

Press Choose

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials 15.6 Imprint
Imprints an object on the selected solid. The object to be imprinted must intersect one or more faces on the selected solid in order for imprinting to be successful. Imprinting is limited to the following objects: arcs, circles, lines, 2D and 3D polylines, ellipses, splines, regions, bodies, and 3D solids 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Extrude Change Choose Select Select Delete objects (i.e. walls) to create a solid object. the UCS and draw an object on a face of one of the walls. Modify, Solid Editing, Imprint. a 3D solid: pick solid an object to imprint: pick circle the source object <N>: Y

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials 15.7 Extrude Imprint
1. 2. 3. 4. Choose Select Deselect Type Modify, Solid Editing, Extrude Faces. the circle that was imprinted in 15.6. any unwanted faces. -8 as the height of extrusion (or desired height).

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials 15.9 Shell
You can create a shell or a hollow thin wall with a specified thickness from your 3D solid object. AutoCAD creates new faces by offsetting existing ones inside or outside their original positions. AutoCAD treats continuously tangent faces as single faces when offsetting. 1. 2. Choose Select Remove Enter Modify, Solid Editing, Shell. a 3D solid: pick solid faces or [Undo/Add/ALL]: enter the shell offset distance: .5

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials

AutoCAD 3D – Chapter 16 Editing Solids

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials 16.1 Select and Manipulate Subobjects
You can select one subobject, or create a selection set of more than one subobject on any number of solids. Your selection set can also include more than one type of subobject.

1.

Open

a drawing with 3D solid object and display in a 3D view.

2. 3.

Hold Toggle

the CTRL key and select the solid. to other subobjects within the solid while holding the CTRL key.

4.

Click and drag

to modify the solid.

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials 16.2 Use Grip Tools
Grip tools are icons that you use in a 3D view to easily constrain the movement or rotation of a selection set of objects to an axis or a plane.

There are two types of grip tools: Move (3DMOVE command) Rotate (3DROTATE command

1.

Open

a drawing with 3D solid object and display in a 3D view.

2. 3.

Hold Toggle

the CTRL key and select the solid. to other subobjects within the solid while holding the CTRL key.

4.

Click and drag

to modify the solid using the grip tool.

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials 16.3 Press or Pull Bounded Areas
You can press or pull bounded areas by pressing and holding CTRL + ALT, or by clicking the Presspull button on the dashboard and then picking the bounded area. The area must be bounded by coplanar lines or edges.

1.

Open

a drawing with a 3D object and imprinted object and display in a 3D view.

2.

Hold

the CTRL and ALT keys and select the imprinted object or solid face to manipulate it.

3.

Click and drag

to a new location.

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials

AutoCAD 3D – Chapter 17 Sections and Flat Objects from 3D Models

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials 17.1 Sectionplane Command
The SECTIONPLANE command creates a section object that exposes the interior details of a model created with 3D objects. Once you create a section object, you can move and manipulate it to finetune the sectional view you want.

1.

Open

a drawing with 3D solid objects and display in a plan and 3D view.

2.

Choose

Draw, Modeling, Sectionplane. or

Type

SECTIONPLANE at the command prompt. Command: SECTIONPLANE Select face or any point to locate section line or [Draw section/Orthographic]: O Align section to: [Front/bAck/Top/Bottom/Left/Right] <Front>: FRONT (enter)

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials 17.2 Manipulate Section Using Grips
1. Click on a section line created using the SECTIONPLANE command. 2. Click on one of the grips to manipulate the section.

segment end grip base grip section line

menu grip

directional arrow grip

Base grip - moves the entire section object Directional arrow grip – changes the cutting plane direction Segment end grip - rotates the section object around the base grip Menu grip - moves between the three states

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials 17.3 Section Shortcut Commands
1. Right-click on a section line to see the following section options. 2. Click the various section options.

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials 17.4 Generate 2D and 3D Sections
1. 2. 3. Right-click Click Click on a section line. Generate 2D/3D section… the down arrow from the following dialog box to see all of the section options.

4. 5.

Choose Click

2D Section and Create. an insertion point and scale for the 2D section block.

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials 17.5 Section Command
Uses the intersection of a plane and solids to create a region

1. 2.

Open Type

a drawing with 3D objects and display in a 3D view. SECTION at the command prompt. Command: SECTION Select objects: pick solid and press enter Specify first point on Section plane by [Object/Zaxis/View/XY/YZ/ZX/3points] <3points>: XY Specify a point on the XY-plane <0,0,0>: MID of

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials 17.6 Slice Command
1. 2. Open Choose a drawing with 3D objects and display in a 3D view. Modify, 3D Operation, Slice. or 3. Type SLICE at the command prompt. Command: slice Select objects to slice: 1 found Specify start point of slicing plane or [planar Object/Surface/Zaxis/View/XY/YZ/ZX/3points] <3points>: YZ Specify a point on the YZ-plane <0,0,0>: MID of Specify a point on desired side or [keep Both sides] <Both>:

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials 17.7 Flatshot
Creates a 2D or “flattened” representation of all 3D objects in the current view.

1. Click

the Solid Editing dropdown from the Solid, Section ribbon panel.

or 2. Type FLATSHOT at the command prompt. Command: flatshot

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials
3. Click Create and a location point for a block to insert.

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials 17.8 Solview
1. 2. 3. Choose Choose Double-click File, New... “Use a Template” from the startup dialog. acad.dwt as the template file to start from.

4. 5.

Create Move and resize

a new layout. the model view so it is in the upper left corner of the sheet as follows.

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials
Drawing with a Model Space View

6. 7.

Type Type

MSPACE at the command prompt. INSERT at the command prompt and choose the drawing called 3DBOTTLE.DWG to insert. Explode the Block as you are inserting it.

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials
8. 9. 10. 11. Insert Type Type Change the block anywhere in the Model Space view at a scale of 1 and rotation 0. ZOOM EXTENTS then ZOOM 1XP. PSPACE at the command prompt. the layout paper size to ANSIC (22 x17).

Model Space View Scaled 1XP

Front

12.

Type

SOLVIEW at the command prompt. Command: SOLVIEW Ucs/Ortho/Auxiliary/Section/<eXit>: O Pick side of viewport to project: pick bottom “front” of the viewport. View center: drag a point below the current viewport Specify first corner of viewport:click upper left corner Specify opposite corner of viewport: click lower right corner Enter view name: FRONT Enter an option [Ucs/Ortho/Auxiliary/Section]: enter

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials

New “FRONT” view

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials 17.10 Soldraw
Generates profiles and sections in viewports created with SOLVIEW. SOLDRAW can only prepare viewports that have been created with SOLVIEW. 1. Type SOLDRAW at the command prompt Command: SOLDRAW Select viewports to draw: Pick the front viewport created above Select objects: 1 found Select objects: enter 3 solids selected. NOTE: If your object was an inserted block, you need to first explode it so it becomes a solid.

Resultant Section and Solid

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials 17.11 Create 3D View Using UCS
1. 2. 3. Type Choose Type MSPACE and the plan view of the 3D Bottle. View, 3D Viewport, SW Isometric... UCS at the command prompt. Command: UCS Origin/ZAxis/3point/OBject/View/X/Y/Z/ Prev/Restore/Save/Del/?/<World>: VIEW This sets the current UCS parallel to the screen. We now need to save this ucs. 4. Type UCS at the command prompt. Command: UCS Origin/ZAxis/3point/OBject/View/X/Y/Z/ Prev/Restore/Save/Del/?/<World>: SAVE ?/Desired UCS name: 3DVIEW 5. 6. Type Type PSPACE at the command prompt. Command:PSPACE SOLVIEW at the command prompt. Command: SOLVIEW Ucs/Ortho/Auxiliary/Section/<eXit>: U Named/World/?/<Current>: N Name of UCS to restore: 3DVIEW Enter view scale<1.0000>: enter View center: pick upper left corner View center: pick lower right corner Enter view name: 3DVIEW

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials

3D Model View

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials 17.12 Solid Profile
1. 2. Double-click Type MODEL to return to Model Space. SOLPROF at the command prompt. Command: SOLPROF Select objects: pick solids from the 3DView Select objects: enter Display hidden profile lines on separate layer? <Y>: enter Project profile lines onto a plane? <Y>: enter Delete tangential edges? <Y>: enter 3 solids selected.

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials

AutoCAD 3D – Chapter 18 Introduction to Rendering

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials 18.1 Render Command
Creates a photorealistic or realistically shaded image of a threedimensional wireframe or solid model. 1. 2. 3. Open Choose Type an AutoCAD drawing with 3D objects to render. View, Render, Render... or RENDER at the command prompt. Command: RENDER

The following render window is the result of default rendering

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials 18.2 Render Destination
You are able to determine the output site that the renderer uses to display the rendered image. Two options are the render window and viewport. 1. 2. 3. Choose Type Click View, Render, Advanced Render Settings... or RPREF at the command prompt. Command: RPERF the dropdown option for destination and choose Viewport.

4.

Close

the render preferences and render your objects to the viewport.

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials 18.3 Render Quality
1. 2. 3. Choose Type Click View, Render, Advanced Render Settings... or RPREF at the command prompt. Command: RPREF the dropdown option for the render quality and choose Presentation.

4.

Close

the render preferences and render your view.

Note: Depending on the objects, lights, materials, etc. in your model, rendering in presentation mode might take a long time.

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials 18.4 Render Selection
Controls the parts of the model that gets processed during rendering. The render procedure has three settings: View, Crop, and Selected. 1. 2. 3. Choose Type Click View, Render, Advanced Render Settings... or RPREF at the command prompt. Command: RPREF the dropdown option for Procedure and choose Selected.

4.

Close

the render preferences and render selected objects. This result is a selected object in the drawing that is rendered.

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials 18.5 Render Cropped Window
1. 2. 3. Choose Type Click View, Render, Advanced Render Settings... or RPREF at the command prompt. Command: RPREF dropdown option for Procedure and choose Crop.

4.

Close

the render preferences and render a cropped window. The result is a cropped portion of the drawing that is rendered.

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials 18.6 Render to File
1. 2. 3. Type RPREF at the command prompt. Click the small disk beside the title for “Render Content”. Click the option for Output file name.

4. 5. 6.

Choose a location, format, and file name for your rendered objects. Adjust the image quality and click OK. Close the render preferences and render your objects.

The result is a rendered image to a file that you can copy , print, or manipulate in any imaging software application.

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials 18.7 Turn Off Render to File
1. 2. 3. 4. Open Choose Type Click an AutoCAD drawing with 3D objects to render. View, Render, Advanced Render Settings... or RPREF at the command prompt. Command: RPREF the small disk beside the title for “Render Content”. You will notice that the Output file name option will be grayed out.

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials

AutoCAD 3D – Chapter 19 Materials

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials 19.1 Adding Material to a Drawing
1. 2. 3. Open Choose Type an AutoCAD drawing with 3D objects to add materials to. View, Render, Materials Brower ... or MATERIALS or MATBROSWEROPEN at the command prompt. Command: MATERIALS or MARBROWSEROPEN 4. 5. Click Browse the categories button to see more swatches. the various materials in the Autodesk Library.

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials 19.2 Apply Material to Objects
1. Click and drag the following materials into the document section of the materials browser.

2.

Select

an object and select a material.

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials
3. Type RENDER at the command prompt to see the new material applied in the drawing.

4.

Apply additional materials to objects and render the drawing.

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials 19.3 Show Objects Materials Applied To
1. 2. Right-click Click a material in the Document Materials section. Select Objects Applied To

Object(s) with attached materials are selected in the drawing.

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials 19.4 Edit Material
1. 2. Right-click Click a material in the Document Materials section. Edit.

3.

Change

one or more properties of the material.

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials
Render the viewport to see the material changes

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials 19.5 Adjust Material Scale
Materials such as hard wood might not map properly to objects at different scales. The follow section shows how to adjust the scale of materials. 1. 2. Right-click Click a material in the Document Materials window. Edit.

3.

Click

the image picture to edit it.

4. 5.

Click Click

the Transforms dropdown. the Scale dropdown and change the width and height.

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials

Render the viewport to see the newly scaled material.

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials 19.6 Applying Materials by Layer
You can attach a material to an entire layer using the Material Attach command. 1. Add the material Course Polished White to your Document Materials.

2.

Type

MATERIALATTACH at the command prompt. Command: MATERIALATTACH and drag the concrete material onto layer Wall.

3.

Click

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials
Render the drawing to see the new material attached to the wall layer.

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials 19.7 Create a New Material
1. 2. 3. 4. Open Choose Type Click a drawing without materials. View, Render, Material Browser or MATERIALS at the command prompt. Command: MATERIALS the Create Material button and Wall Paint.

5. 6.

Type Choose

Wall Paint – Eggshell Green as the new material name. a blue green color.

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials
7. . Choose Eggshell as the finish.

8.

Apply the material to a wall in the drawing.

Render the drawing to see the newly created material.

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials 19.8 Create Photo as Material
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Choose Type Click Name Click View, Render, Materials... or MATERIALS at the command prompt. Command: MATERIALS the Create Material button and New Generic Material. the material Photo. the blank image box and navigate to the location where images are located, choose a photo image, and click Open.

The photo is added as an image material

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials
6. 7. Choose Choose the dropdown option for Transforms. the dropdown for Repeat and set the Horizontal and Vertical repeats to None.

8.

Apply

the material to the 3D face in the drawing.

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials
9. Render the viewport.

10.

Edit

the material image transforms as follows.

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials
11. Render the viewport.

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials 19.9 Material Mapping (Photo)
1. Type MATERIALMAP at the command prompt. Command: MATERIALMAP Select an option [Box/Planar/Spherical/Cylindrical/copY mapping to/Reset mapping]<Box>: PLANAR Select faces or objects: 1 found

Select faces or objects: enter

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials
Accept the mapping or [Move/Rotate/reseT/sWitch mapping mode]:enter Regenerating model.

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials 19.10 Material Mapping (Shapes)
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Open Attach Type Choose Use a drawing with a box, cylinder, and sphere. an image material to the cylinder (for example. Wild Cherry Natural 2). MATERIALMAP at the command prompt. Command: MATERIALMAP Cylinder and then pick the cylinder in the drawing. the grips to move the mapping plane along the cylinder.

6.

Press

enter and render the drawing.

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials
7. Change the material mapping again for the cylinder.

8.

Render

the viewport.

Practice adjusting the material map for the box and sphere.

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials 19.11 Removing Materials from Objects
1. Click Remove Materials from the Render tab under 3D Modeling.

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials 19.12 Purge Materials from Drawings
1. 2. 3. Type Right-click Click MATERIALS at the command prompt. Command: MATERIALS anywhere in Document Material section. Purge All Unused.

NOTE: You can only purge a material if it is not in use.

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials

19.12 Cutout Materials
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Choose Type Click Click Select Select Click Select Select View, Render, Materials Broswer... or MATERIALS at the command prompt. Command: MATERIALS Create Material and create a new generic material called Magnolia Tree. Image and add an image for a tree. Scale and change both the width and height to 10’. Repeat and set both horizontal and vertical to None. Cutout and select the same image as the tree as a black and white cutout. Scale and change both the width and height to 10’. Repeat and set both horizontal and vertical to None.

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials
10. Apply the material to an object.

11.

Set

the material mapping to planar.

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials
12. Render the viewport.

Objects should now be seen behind the cutout image.

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials 19.13 Bump Map Materials
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Choose Type Click Click Click View, Render, Materials Browser or MATERIALS at the command prompt. Command: materials Create Material and create a generic material called Bump Material. Image and add a material image. Bump and add the same image as the bump material.

6.

Apply

the image to an object and set material mapping if necessary.

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials
7. Render the viewport.

5.

Adjust

the bump settings and render again.

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials 19.12 Materials ON/OFF
1. 2. 3. 4. Open Set Choose Type a drawing with materials and textures added. the Visual Style to Realistic. Materials OFF from the Materials ribbon or VSMATERIALMODE at the command prompt. Command: _VSMATERIALMODE Enter new value for VSMATERIALMODE <2>: 0 0=Materials OFF/Textures OFF 1= Materials ON/Textures OFF 2=Materials ON/Textures ON

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials

AutoCAD 3D – Chapter 20 Lights

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials 20.1 Default Lighting
When there are no lights in a scene, the scene is shaded with default lighting. Default lighting is derived from two distant sources that follow the viewpoint as you move around the model. All faces in the model are illuminated so that they are visually discernible. You can control brightness and contrast, but you do not need to create or place lights yourself. When you insert custom lights or add sunlight, you can disable the default lighting. You can apply default lighting to the viewport only; at the same time, you can apply custom lights to the rendering.

ON/OFF

1.

Choose

Default Lighting from the Lighting ribbon

or 2. Type DEFAULTLIGHTING at the command prompt. Command: DEFAULTLIGHTING Enter new value for DEFAULTLIGHTING <0>: 1

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials 20.2 Point Lights
A point light radiates light in all directions from its location.

1. 2.

Open Choose

a drawing with 3D objects and display in a 3D view. View, Render, Light, New Point Light. or

3.

Type

POINTLIGHT at the command prompt. Command: POINTLIGHT

4.

Click

Turn Off default lighting in the following prompt if default lighting was on:

Specify source location <0,0,0>: .XY of pick bottom center of bottle (need Z): 15 Enter an option to change [Name/Intensity/Status/shadoW/Attenuation/Color/ eXit] <eXit>: press enter 5. Render the current viewport.

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials
View rendered using a point light

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials 20.3 Spot Lights
A spotlight emits a directional cone of light.

1.

Choose

View, Render, Light, New Spot Light. or

2.

Type

SPOTLIGHT at the command prompt. Command: SPOTLIGHT Specify source location <0,0,0>: P1 Specify target location <0,0,-10>: P2 Enter an option to change [Name/Intensity/Status/Hotspot/Falloff/shadoW/ Attenuation/Color/eXit] <eXit>: press enter

P1

P2
3. Render the current viewport.

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials
View rendered using a point and spotlight

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials 20.4 Editing Lights with Light List
The lightlist command allows you to modify lights in a drawing. This includes turning lights off, deleting lights, or changing the properties of one or more lights.

1. 2.

Open Choose

a drawing with lights. View, Render, Light, Lightlist. or

3.

Type

LIGHTLIST at the command prompt. Command: LIGHTLIST

4.

Double-click the point light in the drawing to modify its properties.

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials

Render the viewport to see the changes to the light

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials 20.5 Photometric Lights
For more precise control over lighting, you can use photometric lights to illuminate your model. Photometric lights use photometric (light energy) values that enable you to more accurately define lights as they would be in the real world. You can create lights with various distribution and color characteristics, or import specific photometric files available from lighting manufacturers.

Photometric lights can use manufacturers' IES standard file format. By using manufacturers’ lighting data, you can visualize commercially available lighting in your model. Then you can experiment with different fixtures, and by varying the light intensity and color temperature, you can design a lighting system that produces the results you want.

1. 2.

Open Type

a drawing with lights. LIGHTLIST to see the current lights in the drawing.

3.

Render

the viewport to see the current light settings with photometric lights off.

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials
4. Type LIGHTINGUNITS at the command prompt and set its value to 1 (on). Command: LIGHTINGUNITS Enter new value for LIGHTINGUNITS <0>: 1 5. Render the viewport to see the current light settings with photometric lights on.

6. 7.

Type Change

LIGHTLIST and double-click the Lamp Spotlight. the lamp color to Halogen and the Candela intensity to 150.

8.

Render

the viewport.

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials

9.

Practice changing other light’s photometric properties.

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials 20.6 Lights Tool Palette
Default lights can be added to your drawing from the Tool Palette menus.

1. 2.

Press Right click

CTRL +3 to open the Tool Palettes. Incandescent.

3. 4.

Right-click Notice

the 75 Watt bulb and choose properties. the photometric properties for this bulb.

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials 20.7 Luminaries
To create realistic lighting in a drawing, you can embed photometric lights in blocks that also contain geometry. Tool palettes of photometric lights provide easy access to photometric lighting bulbs, lamps, or webs. You can select from fluorescent, low pressure sodium, incandescent, and high intensity discharge types of lighting. A luminary assembles a set of light objects into a light fixture. For example, you can create a set of lights to create a light over a dining area. You can select the photometric lights from the tool palettes, position them within a 3D representation of the light, and create a block of the light objects and the 3D representation of the light to create the light fixture with photometric properties.

1. 2.

Open Create

a drawing with photometric lights and a light fixture. a block of the light fixture made up of the lights and fixture.

3.

Insert

the block in the drawing and render the viewport.

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials 20.8 Distant Lights
A distant light emits uniform parallel light rays in one direction only. You specify a FROM point and a TO point anywhere in the viewport to define the direction of the light. There is no light glyph to represent a distant light in your drawing.

1. 2.

Open Choose

a drawing with 3D objects and display in a 3D view. View, Render, Light, New Distant Light. or

3.

Type

DISTANTLIGHT at the command prompt. Command: DISTANTLIGHT Specify light direction FROM <0,0,0> or [Vector]: .XY of MID P1 of (need Z): 5 Specify light direction TO <1,1,1>: .XY of MID P2 of (need Z): 5 Enter an option to change [Name/Intensity/Status/shadoW/Color/eXit] <eXit>: enter

P2 P1
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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials
View rendered using a point and distant light

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials 20.9 Other Lights
Weblights Photometric weblights provide real-world light distribution.

A photometric weblight (web) is a 3D representation of the light intensity distribution of a light source. Photometric weblights can be used to represent anisotropic (non-uniform) light distributions derived from data provided by manufacturers of real-world lights. This gives a far more precise representation of the rendered light than either spot or point lights are capable of.

This directional light distribution information is stored in a photometric data file in the IES format using the IES LM-63-1991 standard file format for photometric data. You can load photometric data files provided by various manufacturers under the Photometric Web panel in the Properties palette for the light. The light icon represents the photometric web you select.

Light that uses a photometric web can be added to a drawing by entering the commands WEBLIGHT and FREEWEB at the command prompt. A weblight targets an object whereas a freeweb light does not. Target Point Lights You create a target point light with the TARGETPOINT command. The difference between the target point light and a point light is the additional target properties that are available. A target light can be pointed to an object. A target point light can also be created from a point light by changing the target property of the point light from No to Yes.

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials 20.10 Geographic Locations
Specifies the latitude and longitude of a location for the sunlight.

1. 2.

Open Choose

a drawing with a known geography and lights. View, Render, Light, Geographic Location. or

3.

Type

GEOGRAPHICLOCATION at the command prompt. Command: GEOGRAPHICLOCATION

4.

Choose

Enter the location values from the following dialog box.

5.

Click

the Use Map…button.

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials
6. Choose Washington, D.C from the location dialog box.

7.

Accept

the updated time zone settings.

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials 20.11 Sun Properties
1. 2. Open Choose a drawing with a geographic location identified. View, Render, Light, Sun Properties. or 3. Type SUNPROPERTIES at the command prompt. Command: SUNPROPERTIES 4. 5. Click Change the Status dropdown and click ON. the date to November 2 2010 (or the next election date). 6. Change other properties as desired and render the model. US Capitol Building rendered

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials

AutoCAD 3D – Chapter 21 Render Environments and Background

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials 21.1 Render Environment
You can use environmental features to set up atmospheric effects or background images.

1. 2.

Open Choose

a drawing with 3D objects and display in a 3D view. View, Render, Advanced Render Environment... or

3.

Type

RENDERENVIRONMENT at the command prompt. Command: RENDERENVIRONMENT

4.

Select

Enable Fog On and set the following near and far percents.

Before fog

After fog

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials 21.2 Solid Background
A background is a backdrop that displays behind your model. Backgrounds can be a single color, a multi-color gradient, or a bitmap image. 1. 2. Open Choose a drawing with 3D objects and display in a 3D view. View, Named Views. or 3. Type VIEW at the command prompt. Command: VIEW 4. 5. 6. Choose Type Click New… a name for your new view. the drop down box under background and choose Solid. 7. Choose a color for your solid background.

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials
8. 8. Set Render the new view to be the current view. the viewport.

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials 21.3 Gradient Environment
1. 2. Open Choose a drawing with 3D objects and display in a 3D view. View, Named Views. or 3. Type VIEW at the command prompt. Command: VIEW 4. 5. 6. 7. Choose Type Click Choose New… a name for your new view. the check box beside background. the dropdown option for background type and choose gradient. 8. Choose Colors for your gradient background.

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials
9. Set the new view to be current.

10.

Render

the viewport.

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials 21.4 Image Background
1. 2. Open Choose a drawing with 3D objects and display in a 3D view. View, Named Views. or 3. Type VIEW at the command prompt. Command: VIEW 4. 5. 6. 7. Choose Type Click Choose New… a name for your new view. the check box beside background. the dropdown option for background type and choose image. 8. Click the Browse button and choose an image for your background.

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials
9. Set the new view to be the current view.

10.

Render

the viewport.

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials

AutoCAD 3D – Chapter 22 Advanced Render Commands

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials 22.1 Materials
Contains settings that affect how materials are handled by the renderer. Apply Materials Applies the surface materials that you define and attach to an object in the drawing. If Apply Materials is not selected, all objects in the drawing assume the color, ambient, diffuse, reflection, roughness, transparency, refraction, and bump map attribute values defined for the GLOBAL material. Texture Filtering Specifies how texture maps are filtered. Force 2-Sided Controls if both sides of faces are rendered.

1. 2.

Open Choose

a drawing with 3D objects and display in a 3D view. View, Render, Advanced Render Settings... or

3.

Type

RPREF at the command prompt. Command: RPREF

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials 22.2 Sampling
Controls how the renderer performs sampling. 1. Type RPREF at the command prompt. Command: RPREF

Min Samples Sets the minimum sample rate. The value represents the number of samples per pixel. A value greater than or equal to 1 indicates that one or more samples are computed per pixel. A fractional value indicates that one sample is computed for every N pixels (for example, 1/4 computes a minimum of one sample for every four pixels). Default=1/4. Max Samples Sets the maximum sample rate. If neighboring samples find a difference in contrast that exceeds the contrast limit, the area containing the contrast is subdivided to the depth specified by Maximum. Default=1. The values of the Min Samples and Max Samples lists are "locked" together so that the value of Min Samples can't exceed the value of Max Samples. An error dialog box is displayed if the Min Samples value is greater than the Max Samples value.

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials
Filter Type Determines how multiple samples are combined into a single pixel value. The filter types are: Box Sums all samples in the filter area with equal weight. This is the quickest sampling method. Gauss Weights the samples using a Gauss (bell) curve centered on the pixel. Triangle Weights the samples using a pyramid centered on the pixel. Mitchell Weights the samples using a curve (steeper than Gauss) centered on the pixel. Lanczos Weights the samples using a curve (steeper than Gauss) centered on the pixel, diminishing the effect of samples at the edge of the filter area. Filter Width and Filter Height Specifies the size of the filtered area. Increasing the value of Filter Width and Filter Height can soften the image; however, it will increase rendering time. Contrast Color Clicking [...] opens the Select Color dialog box where you interactively specify the R,G,B threshold values. Contrast Red, Blue, Green Specifies the threshold values for the red, blue, and green components of samples. These values are normalized, and range from 0.0 to 1.0, where 0.0 indicates the color component is fully - 256 -

AutoCAD 3D Tutorials
unsaturated (black, or 0 in eight-bit encoding) and 1.0 indicates the color component is fully saturated (white, or 255 in eight-bit encoding). Contrast Alpha Specifies the threshold value for the alpha component of samples. This value is normalized, and ranges from 0.0 (fully transparent, or 0 in eight-bit encoding) to 1.0 (fully opaque, or 255 in eight-bit encoding).

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials 22.3 Shadows
Contains settings that affect how shadows appear in the rendered image. 1. Type RPREF at the command prompt. Command: rpref

Enable Specifies if shadows are computed during rendering.

Mode The shadow mode can be Simple, Sort, or Segments.

Simple. Sort.

Generates shadow shaders in a random order. Generates shadow shaders in order, from the object to the light.

Segments. Generates shadow shaders in order along the light ray from the volume shaders to the segments of the light ray between the object and the light. Shadow Map Controls if shadow mapping is used to render shadows. When on, the renderer renders shadow-mapped shadows. When off, all shadows are ray-traced.

Sampling Multiplier Globally limits shadow sampling for area lights. This is part of the rendering preset data. This allows draft and low quality presets to reduce area light sampling. It’s effect is to modulate the inherent sampling frequency specified for each light. The default value=1 for new presets. Values are 0, 1/8, 1/4, 1/2, 1, 2. Draft: 0; Low:1/4; Med:1/2; High:1; Presentation:1.

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials 22.4 Ray Tracing
Contains settings that affect the shading of a rendered image.

1.

Type

RPREF at the command prompt. Command: RPREF

Enable Specifies if ray tracing should be performed when shading. Max Depth Limits the combination of reflection and refraction. Tracing of a ray stops when the total number of reflections and refractions reaches the maximum depth. For example, if Max Depth equals 3 and the two trace depths each equal the default value of 2, a ray can be reflected twice and refracted once, or vice versa, but it cannot be reflected and refracted four times. Max Reflections Sets the number of times a ray can be reflected. At 0, no reflection occurs. At 1, the ray can be reflected once only. At 2, the ray can be reflected twice, and so on. Max Refractions Sets the number of times a ray can be refracted. At 0, no refraction occurs. At 1, the ray can be refracted once only. At 2, the ray can be refracted twice, and so on.

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials 22.5 Illumination
Affects how your scene is illuminated.

1.

Type

RPREF at the command prompt. Command: rpref

Enable Specifies if lights should cast indirect light into the scene.

Photons/Samples Sets how many photons are used to compute the intensity of the global illumination. Increasing this value makes global illumination less noisy but also more blurry. Decreasing this value makes global illumination more noisy but less blurry. The larger the Samples value, the greater the rendering time.

Use Radius Determines the size of photons. When on, the spinner value sets the size of photons. When off, each photon is calculated to be 1/10 of the radius of the full scene.

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials
Radius Specifies the area within which photons will be used when illuminance is computed.

Max Depth Limits the combination of reflection and refraction. Reflection and refraction of a photon stop when the total number of both equals the Max Depth setting. For example, if Max Depth equals 3 and the trace depths each equal 2, a photon can be reflected twice and refracted once, or vice versa, but it can’t be reflected and refracted four times.

Max Reflections Sets the number of times a photon can be reflected. At 0, no reflection occurs. At 1, the photon can be reflected once only. At 2, the photon can be reflected twice, and so on.

Max Refractions Sets the number of times a photon can be refracted. At 0, no refraction occurs. At 1, the photon can be refracted once only. At 2, the photon can be refracted twice, and so on.

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials 22.6 Diagnostic
Helps you understand why the renderer is behaving in a certain way.

1.

Type

RPREF at the command prompt. Command: RPREF

Grid Object World Camera Grid Size Photon

Renders an image that shows the coordinate space of objects, the world, or camera. Shows local coordinates (UVW). Each object has its own coordinate space. Shows world coordinates (XYZ). The same coordinate system applies to all objects. Shows camera coordinates, which appear as a rectangular grid superimposed on the view. Sets the size of the grid. Renders the effect of a photon map. This requires that a photon map be present. If no photon map is present, the Photon rendering looks just like the nondiagnostic rendering of the scene: the renderer first renders the shaded scene, then replaces it with the pseudocolor image. Renders the photon map as it is projected into the scene. High density is displayed in red, and lower values render in increasingly

Density.

cooler colors. Irradiance. Similar to the Density rendering, but shades the photons based on their irradiance. The maximum irradiance is rendered in red, and lower values render in increasingly cooler colors. Renders a visualization of the parameters used by the tree in the - 262 -

BSP

AutoCAD 3D Tutorials
BSP ray-trace acceleration method. If a message from the renderer reports excessively large depth or size values, or if rendering seems unusually slow, this can help you locate the problem. Depth. Size. Shows the depth of the tree, with top faces in bright red, and increasingly deep faces in increasingly cool colors. Shows the size of leaves in the tree, with differently sized leaves indicated by different colors.

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AutoCAD 3D Tutorials 22.7 Processing
1. Type RPREF at the command prompt. Command: RPREF

Tile Size

Determines the tile size for rendering. To render the scene, the image is subdivided into tiles. The smaller the tile size, the more image updates are generated during rendering. When the tile size is reduced, the number of image updates increases, meaning that a rendering take longer to complete.If the tile size is increased, fewer image updates occur and the rendering takes less time to complete. Specifies the method used (render order) for tiles as an image is rendered. You can choose a method based on you prefer to see the image appear as it renders in the Render Window. Next tile to be rendered is based on the cost of switching to the next one. Tiles are rendered beginning at the center of the image, and spiral outward. Tiles are rendered in columns, from bottom to top, left to right. Tiles are rendered in columns, from bottom to top, right to left. Tiles are rendered in rows, from right to left, top to bottom. Tiles are rendered in rows, from right to left, bottom to top. Determines the memory limit for rendering. The renderer keeps a count of the memory it uses at render time. If the memory limit is reached, the geometry for some objects is discarded in order to allocate memory for other objects.

Tile Order

Hilbert. Spiral. Left to Right. Right to Left. Top to Bottom. Bottom to Top. Memory Limit

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