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The Highest Standard of Care: Sub-Zero Cold Storage
For Small Personal
Collections to Large Institutional Archives

 

WIR Technical Articles About Image Permanence Test Methods and the Permanence of Digitally-Printed Photographs

 

WIR Print Permanence Ratings for 3rd Party Consumer Inks/Papers
and General Interest
Image Permanence Articles

 

WIR Print Permanence Ratings for Desktop Printers, 4x6-inch Dedicated Photo Printers, and Silver-Halide Digital Minilabs

 

WIR Print Permanence Ratings for Medium-Format Tabletop Inkjet Photo Printers and
for Large-Format Inkjet
Photo Printers

           

Latest Update
Free Download!


"The Wilhelm Analog and Digital Color Print Materials Reference Collection"
"All Materials Printed With Color and Monochrome Test Targets Using the Prints, Processing Chemicals, and Inks of Their Time"
"47 Years: From 1971 to 2018
The Only Collection of Its Kind in the World"

By Henry Wilhelm, Carol Brower Wilhelm, Kabenla Armah, and Barbara C. Stahl

Updated March 10, 2018

Abstract for a Paper That Was Presented at the 46th Annual Conference of the American Institute for Conservation (AIC) in Houston, Texas May 29 to June 2, 2018


"Comparison of LED,
L-37 Filtered Xenon Arc, and Glass-Filtered Cool White Fluorescent Illumination in the Light Fading and Light-Induced Staining of Color Photographs"

Henry Wilhelm, Wilhelm Imaging Research, Inc. and Richard Adams, Ryerson University (Toronto, Ontario, Canada)


Posted Feburary 24, 2018

A Video Visit to the Corbis Photograph Cold Storage Preservation Facility in the High-Security, Underground Iron Mountain Vital Records Center in Northwest Pennsylvania.
Video Produced by Arthur Ou with the Hillman Photography Initiative at the Carneige Museum of Art in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
Posted April 30, 2014



A Video Featuring Bill Gates, the Owner of Corbis, Henry Wilhelm, Preservation Consultant to Corbis, and Corbis CEO Gary Shenk Discussing the Preservation and Access Facility in France
May 12, 2009




"Long-Term Preservation of Photographic Originals and Digital Image Files in the Corbis/Sygma Collection in France"
By Henry Wilhelm (WIR), Cédric Gressent (Corbis/Sygma France), and Drew MacLean (Corbis USA)
WIR IS&T
Posted May 10, 2009

Press Release

"Corbis Opens Sygma Preservation and Access Facility"

WIR IS&T

Posted May 18, 2009

"High-Security, Sub-Zero Cold Storage for the PERMANENT Preservation of the Corbis-Bettmann Archive Photography Collection"
By Henry Wilhelm with
Ann C. Hartman, Kenneth Johnston, Els Rijper, and
Thomas Benjamin

Posted May 17, 2004

"The Design and Operation of a Passive Humidity-Controlled Cold Storage Vault Using Conventional Freezer Technology and Moisture-Sealed Cabinets"
By Mark McCormick-Goodhart and Henry Wilhelm


Posted May 17, 2004



From IS&T Archiving
Conference
Posted May 17, 2004
Download Companion
Poster PDF
From IS&T Archiving Conference

Poster Size: 44x96 Inches

Cold Storage Article:
"Frozen In Time:
The Bettmann Archive"

Transcript of a Jim Lehrer Television Feature on the Corbis Film Preservation Facility
Broadcast June 10, 2004 (Rebroadcast April 28, 2005)
TV Segment Features: Terence Smith, Ken Johnston, Henry Wilhelm, Bill Gates, Tom Roth, and Dina Keil



June 10, 2004

Photography
Preservation Article
from

"Why has Bill Gates
stashed millions of the greatest images of the 20th century under a mountain
in Pennsylvania?"
washington post
"Buried Treasure"
By Mary Battiata
May 18, 2003


(16 MB file size)

(3.1 MB file size)


(72K file size)

": Celebrating the Legacy of Dr. Otto Bettmann"
Includes Interview with Henry Wilhelm About the Corbis Sub-Zero Film Preservation Facility
Posted May 17, 2004

Article from

"Under Iron Mountain - Corbis Stores 'Very Important Photographs' at Zero Degrees Fahrenheit"

By Gary Haynes
January 2005




January 2005

Article from

"A Visit to the Corbis Picture Mine"

By Dirck Halstead
June 2003




June 2003

Article from

"Preserving the Past - Spotlight Touches Image Archive, Iron Mountain"

Article features Corbis Collections Manager Ann Hartman at the Corbis Film Preservation Facility at Iron Mountain in Boyers, Pennsylvania
By Eric Freehling
October 5, 2014


View 2-Page Article


Article from Photo Electronic Imaging Magazine

April 1999

"Images on Ice — Cold Storage Freezes Time for Photographic Film and Prints"

By E. Sapwater with Contributing Writers Kirstin Mortensen and Helen Johnston




April 1999

"The Cold Storage of Photographic Collections Using Conventional Freezer Storage"
Presented at the 14th Annual National Archives and Records Administration Preservation Conference: Alternative Archival Facilities, held at the National Archives in Washington, D.C. on March 25, 1999

By Mark McCormick-Goodhart



March 25, 1999

"On the Cold Storage of Photographic Materials in a Conventional Freezer Using the Critical Moisture Indicator (CMI) Packaging Method"

By Mark McCormick-Goodhart




Posted July 30, 2003

"The Allowable Temperature and Relative Humidity Range for the Safe Use and Storage of Photographic Materials"
Journal of the Society of Archivists,
Vol. 17, No. 1, 1996

By Mark McCormick-Goodhart



Posted July 31, 2003

Guidebook from
"Cold Storage of Photographs at the "
By Sue Bigelow, Conservator




Posted May 17, 2004

Abstract for a Paper That Was Presented at IS&T's "Printing for Fabrication 2018: Materials, Applications and Processes" Conference in Dresden, Germany on September 23 - 27, 2018

"Permanence Testing of 3D-Printed Objects Subjected to Fade Testing with Outdoor Daylight and with High-Intensity Fluorescent Illumination and Evaluated with a Multispectral Camera and Image Analysis System"
Richard Adams, Ryerson University; Henry G. Wilhelm, Wilhelm Imaging Research, Inc.; Jeremy Littler, Ryerson University


.STL Files for Printing Your Own Ryerson-WIR 3D-Printed Permanence Test Targets

Description of .STL Files for Printing Your Own Ryerson-WIR 3D-Printed Permanence Test Targets


Posted July 12, 2018


Abstract for a Presentation That Was Given at IS&T's "International Symposium on Technologies for Digital Photo Fulfillment (TDPF)" To Be Held in Dresden, Germany on September 24, 2018

"An Overview of WIR Print Permanence Ratings for Color Print Materials Used in Consumer and Professional Markets"
Henry G. Wilhelm, Wilhelm Imaging Research, Inc.



Posted September 5, 2018

Announcement:
Abstract for a Paper That Was Presented at IS&T's "Archiving 2008: Digitization, Preservation, and Access" Conference at the U.S. National Archives in Washington D.C. on April 17-20, 2018


"High-Resolution Multispectral Imaging and Analysis Systems for the Very-Long-Term Monitoring of Photographs, Paintings, Fabrics, Documents, Books, and Other Works of Artistic and Historical Importance"

Ken Boydston, MegaVision, Inc.; Henry Wilhelm, Wilhelm Imaging Research, Inc.; John McElhone, Canadian Photography Institute of the National Gallery of Canada;Richard Adams, Ryerson University




Posted April 1, 2018

Article from NIP33:
2017 International Conference On Digital Printing Technologies and Digital Fabrication
Denver, Colorado
November 5-9, 2017

"Improved Water-Resistance Test Methods Utilizing a Multispectral Imaging System to Quantify Black and Color Ink Bleeding for Plain Paper Office and Legal Documents Printed with Pigment- and Dye-Based Inket Inks"


By Henry Wilhelm, Wilhelm Imaging Research, Inc., USA; Richard Adams, Ryerson University, Canada; Ken Boydston, MegaVision, Inc., USA; Charles Wilhelm, Wilhelm Imaging Research Inc., USA



Posted November 27, 2017

Announcement for the Salted Paper Prints Symposium Held at Harvard University in Cambridge, Massachusetts on September 14-15, 2017

Among the 22 presentations:

"Use of High-Resolution Multispectral Imaging and Analysis Systems for the Long-Term Monitoring of Salted Paper Prints and for Evaluation of the Intrinsic Permanence Characteristics of Contemporary Salted Paper Prints Made with a Variety of Process Variations"

Henry Wilhelm, Wilhelm Imaging Research, Inc; Ken Boydston, MegaVision, Inc.; Mike Robinson, Ryerson University; John McElhone, Canadian Photography Institute of the National Gallery of Canada; Greg Hill and Season Tse, Canadian Conservation Institute


Posted Feburary 16, 2017

Joint Lectures:
"Applications of Multispectral Imaging" by Guest Speakers Ken Boydston and Henry Wilhelm at the Canadian Photography Institute of the National Gallery of Canada on Tuesday Afternoon, January 31, 2017, from 2:00-4:00 pm. Hosted by John P. McElhone, Chief Conservator of the Restoration and Conservation Laboratory, National Gallery of Canada and the Canadian Photography Institute."





Posted Feburary 16, 2017

Wilhelm Imaging Research Installs New MegaVision Multispectral Imaging and Permanence Data Analysis System

WIR is using the MegaVision system for for large data set, full-tonal scale print permanence studies with a whole range of new materials, including acrylic and glass back-printed with UV-Curable Inks for backlit applications, silver-gelatin, chromogenic, and inkjet prints facemounted to acrylic and glass, prints mounted on Dibond, wood panels, stone, other thick substrates, and more. WIR is the first print permanence testing laboratory in the world to install this sophisticated new system.
Posted May 14, 2016

For Application of the MegaVision System in Permanence Testing See:
Article from "Imaging
Conference JAPAN 2011"
in Tokyo
June 6-8, 2011

"Use of a Multispectral Camera System and Very Small, Comprehensive 'Micropatch' Test Targets for
Full Tonal Scale Colorimetric
Evaluation of the Permanence of Digitally-Printed
Color and B&W Photographs"

By Henry Wilhelm, Ken Boydston,
Kabenla Armah, and Barbara C. Stahl




Posted June 7, 2011

See Also:
Article from NIP23:
2007 International Conference On Digital Printing Technologies
Anchorage, Alaska USA
September 16-21, 2007

"Evaluating the Image Permanence of Full Tonal Scale Human Skintone Colors in Photographs Using the CIELAB Colorimetry Based WIR i-Star 'Retained Image Appearance' Metric"


By Henry Wilhelm and Dmitriy Shklyarov

i-Star


Posted October 15, 2007

Announcement:
Seminar by
Henry Wilhelmat the Palm Springs Photo Festival in Palm Springs California on May 9, 2017
"The Latest Printing Technologies and Print Permanence: How Leading Photographers Are Printing, Mounting, and Displaying Their Work
"





Posted March 25, 2017

Announcement of Presentation at the Library of Congress in Washington D.C. on November 20, 2015
"Contemporary Analog and Digital Color Photographic Prints: Processes, Practice, and Accelerated Test Methods for Evaluating Print Permanence"

Library of Congress Topics in Preservation Series (TOPS)
Presented by Henry Wilhelm



Posted November 20, 2015
Digital Printing Seminar at PhotoPlus Expo in New York That Took Place on Friday, October 23, 2015
Seminar FA7-"The Latest Technologies for Large- and Very-Large Format Printing and Production of Brilliant Backlits and Prints Made with UV-Curable, ChromaLuxe, and the new Epson Printers with UltraChrome HD and HDX Inksets
"
Moderated by Henry Wilhelm
Featuring a Panel of Five of the World's Most Accomplished Fine Art Photography Printmakers:
Philippe Laumont
Laumount Photographics
New York City and Long Island City

Charlie Griffin
Griffin Editions
New York City and Brooklyn

Roland Peck
Peter Lik USA
Las Vegas, Nevada

Alan Blazar

Blazing Editions
East Greenwich, Rhode Island

Stefan Fiedler
Salon Iris
Vienna, Austria

Robert Burley
Photographer and Professor at Ryerson University
Toronto, Canada



Posted October 16, 2015

Announcement of a Seminar at the Department of Materials Science and Engineering of the Whiting School of Engineering at Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland

"Accelerated Test Methods to Evaluate the Long-Term Permanence Characteristics of Digitally-Printed Photographs, Including UV-Curable Prints and High Temperature Dye-Sublimation to ChromaLuxe Aluminium Plates (Metal Prints)"

Presented by Henry Wilhelm on October 15, 2014


Posted October 20, 2014 Society for Imaging Science and Technology NIP30 2014 Digital Printing Technologies Conference in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
September 7 - 11, 2014
"Test Methods for the Long-Term Permanence Behavior of Photographs and Fine Art Prints Made with Large-Format Flatbed Printers Using UV-Curable Inks"
By Henry Wilhelm, Barbara C. Stahl, Kabenla Armah, and Carol Brower Wilhelm






Posted Sept 11, 2014

American Institute for Conservation (AIC) Annual Conference in San Francisco, California USA
May 28 - 31, 2014
"Contemporary analog and digital color photographic prints: Dye and pigment print process descriptors, naming conventions, dating, and permanence characteristics"
By Henry Wilhelm

_________
"The role of temperature on the loss of physical and optical properties of newsprint: An assessment of deacidification and subzero freezer storage for the long-term preservation of newpapers in their original form"
By Henry Wilhelm, John Baty and Andrew Han
Johns Hopkins University


"Personal and Family Archives: A Simplified Approach to Photographs, Movies, Videos, Letters, and Other Documents"
(Abstract)
By Henry Wilhelm and Harold Fuson

WIR IS&T
Presented at IS&T's International Symposium on Technologies for Digital Photo Fulfillment
Held in conjunction with the International Consumer Electronics Show (CES)
Las Vegas, Nevada
January 5-6, 2014

Posted January 12, 2014

Free Download!
New PDF/A Edition
Posted May 22, 2013

"The Permanence and Care of Color Photographs: Traditional and Digital Color Prints, Color Negatives, Slides, and Motion Pictures
"
By
Henry Wilhelm
with
contributing author
Carol Brower

High-Resolution
761-Page Acrobat PDF/A for the Entire Book May be


To date, more than one-half million copies of the book have been downloaded!
Book Published 1993
PDF/A Edition Posted
May 22, 2013

"PDF/A stands for PDF for Archiving" Article from "Imaging Conference JAPAN 2009"
in Tokyo
June 10-12, 2009
"Improved Test Methods for Evaluating the Permanence of Digitally-Printed Photographs"


By Henry Wilhelm, Kabenla Armah, Dmitriy Shklyarov, and Barbara Stahl

114


Posted July 4, 2009

Article from NIP22:
2006 International Conference On Digital Printing Technologies
Denver, Colorado USA
September 19, 2006

"A 15-Year History of Digital Printing Technology and Print Permanence in the Evolution of Digital Fine Art Photography"

By Henry Wilhelm

114


Posted September 25, 2006

Essay Excerpted from the Book ": Photography and the Art of Digital Printing"
By Graham Nash with essays by Richard Benson, R. Mac Holbert, and Henry Wilhelm
Edited by Garrett White
Graham Nash
"A History of Permanence in Traditional and Digital Color Photography: The Role of "
Essay by Henry Wilhelm


Posted December 11, 2007


Article from "Imaging Conference JAPAN 2007"
in Tokyo
June 6-8, 2007
"A Study of 'Unprotected Ozone Resistance' of Photographs Made With Inkjet and Other Digital Printing Technologies"


By Henry Wilhelm, Kabenla Armah, Dmitriy Shklyarov, Barbara Stahl, and
Dimitar Tasev

114


Posted June 20, 2007

Three WIR Articles from NIP20:
2004 International Conference On Digital Printing Technologies
Salt Lake City, Utah USA
November 1, 2004

"A Review of Accelerated
Test Methods for Predicting the Image Life of
Digitally-Printed Photographs—Part II"
By Henry Wilhelm



November 1, 2004
Addenda Updated Dec. 6, 2004
"A 'Retained Image Appearance' Metric For Full Tonal Scale, Colorimetric Evaluation Of Photographic Image Stability"

By Mark McCormick-Goodhart, Henry Wilhelm, and Dmitriy Shklyarov



November 1, 2004
"
Evaluating the Ozone Resistance of Inkjet Prints: Comparisons Between Two Types of Accelerated Ozone Tests and Ambient Air Exposure in a Home"
By Michael Berger and Henry Wilhelm



November 1, 2004

Article from "Japan Hardcopy 2005" Conference in Tokyo
June 8-10, 2005
"New Test Methods for Evaluating the Humidity-Fastness of Inkjet Prints"


By Mark McCormick-Goodhart
and Henry Wilhelm

Image


Posted June 15, 2005

"Progress Towards a NEW Test Method Based on CIELAB Colorimetry for Evaluating the Image Stability of Photographs"
By Mark McCormick-Goodhart and Henry Wilhelm
Posted February 8, 2004
Minor Revision May 2, 2004

February 8, 2004


February 2004

Article from "Japan Hardcopy 2004" Conference in Tokyo
June 2-4, 2004
"A Review of Accelerated Test Methods for Predicting the Image Life of Digitally-Printed Photographs"


By Henry Wilhelm




Posted June 5, 2004

"How Long Will They Last? — Part II
An Overview of the Permanence of Digitally-Printed Photographs and Applicable Accelerated Print Permanence Test Methods"

By Henry Wilhelm



February 2004

"Comparison of Different Methods for Estimating the Sensitivity of Inkjet Images to Gas Fading"

By Michael Berger and Henry Wilhelm



September 2003

"The Correlation of Line Quality Degradation With Color Changes in Inkjet Prints Exposed to High Relative Humidity"

By Mark McCormick-Goodhart and Henry Wilhelm



September 2003

"Yellowish Stain Formation in Inkjet Prints and Traditional Silver-Halide Color Photographs"

By Henry Wilhelm



September 2003

Article from "Japan Hardcopy 2004" Conference in Tokyo June 12, 2003

"Light-Induced and Thermally-Induced Yellowish Stain Formation in Inkjet Prints and Traditional Chromogenic Color Photographs"

By Henry Wilhelm




June 12, 2003

"How Long Will They Last? An Overview of the Light Fading Stability of Inkjet Prints and Traditional Color Photographs"

By Henry Wilhelm




February 2002

"Reciprocity Behavior in the Light Stability Testing of Inkjet Photographs"

By Henry Wilhelm and Mark McCormick-Goodhart



October 2001

"The Influence of Relative Humidity on Short-Term Color Drift in Inkjet Prints"

By Mark McCormick-Goodhart and Henry Wilhelm



October 2001

"Humidity-Induced Color Changes and Ink Migration Effects in Inklet Photographs in Real-World Environmental Conditions"

By Mark McCormick-Goodhart and Henry Wilhelm




October 2000

"An Overview of the Permanence of Inkjet Prints Compared with Traditional Color Prints"

By Henry Wilhelm and Mark McCormick-Goodhart




January 2000

"The Important Roles of Inks and Media in the Light Fading Stability of Inkjet Prints"

By Henry Wilhelm, Joseph Holmes, and Mark McCormick-Goodhart




October 1998

"A Survey of the Light Fading Stability of Digital Pictorial Reflection Prints"

By Henry Wilhelm




May 1995

Article from the

"Monitoring the Fading and Staining of Color Photographic Prints"

By Henry Wilhelm



Fall 1981

New Update!
WIR Print Permanence Ratings for a Broad Range of OBA-Free Canson Infinity Photo and Fine Art Papers Printed with the Latest Epson UltraChrome HDX Inks, the Latest Canon LUCIA PRO Inks, and Current HP Vivera Pigment Inks

WIR :: Canon
This Comprehensive Report Also Includes WIR Print Permanence Ratings for Previous Generation Epson UltraChrome K3 Inks and Previous Generation Canon LUCIA Inks

Posted September 20, 2018

Just Posted!
WIR-HP News Release
“With the New HP DesignJet Z9+ Printer with Very High Stability HP Vivid Photo Pigment Inks with HP Gloss Enhancer Clear Ink and the Best WIR Print Permanence Ratings in the Industry, HP Reinvents Large Format Photo Printers”


Posted October 18, 2018

Posted May 15, 2018
WIR Statement Concerning the Print Permanence of the New HP DesignJet Z6 and Z9+ Large Format Printers with New HP 746 and HP 747 Vivid Photo Pigment Inks


Posted May 15, 2018
Light Fade Testing Methods: HP Image Permanence Labs and Wilhelm Imaging Research
(HP White Paper)



Posted August 2017
Article from PDN Magazine
May 2016
"Inkjet Prints: One For The Ages?"
"Inkjet Prints Can Be Beautiful And, Stored Properly, Incredibly Long-Lasting"
By Greg Scoblete
Senior Technology Editor



Posted May 31, 2016
Article from PDN Magazine
August 2016
"What Photographers Need To Know About UV Printing"
"UV curable inkjet printers can make a print on just about anything and at incredibly large sizes"
By Greg Scoblete
Senior Technology Editor



Posted August 1, 2016

ChromaLuxe - Photokina Article in Fine Art Printer Magazine - Germany
January 2017
By Hermann Will



Posted Feburary 16, 2017

Free Download!

"The Wilhelm Research Archives - Vol. 1"
"Technical Publications 1968-2015"
With Contributions by Henry Wilhelm, Barbara C. Stahl, Kabenla Armah, Carol B. Wilhelm, and Colleagues

This 1,487-page publication on the permanence and preservation of photographs includes 73 key publications and covers 45 years of research and publishing at Wilhelm Imaging Research, Inc. and The Center for the Image.org
Future technical publications will be incorporated 
in updates to this document.

Collected Papers

Updated February 15, 2015
Free Download!
"The Wilhelm Research Archives - Vol. 2"
"Photo and Other Consumer Publications Featuring WIR Research Interviews and Awards
1970-2015"
Compiled by Henry Wilhelm, Barbara C. Stahl, Kabenla Armah, Carol B. Wilhelm, and Colleagues

This is a 696-page publication of articles featuring WIR Research, Interviews and Awards.

Collected Papers


Updated July 1, 2016 Article from NIP29:
2013 International Conference On Digital Printing Technologies
Seattle, Washington USA
September 30, 2013

"Automated Surface Texture Classification of Inkjet and Photographic Media"
By Paul Messier, Richard Johnson, Henry Wilhelm, William A. Sethares, Andrew G. Klein, et al.



Posted February 27, 2014

"Saving Endangered Photographs"

By Sarah Everts
"Chemical and Engineering News"
February 25, 2013





"How to Make a Photo Last Forever (or Close Enough)"

By Greg Scoblete
"RealClearTechnology"
February 07, 2014




Print Permanence Ratings for Inkpress Papers with Epson, Canon, and HP Pigment Inks

WIR :: Canon


Posted September 7, 2011

Minor Update!

Print Permanence Ratings
for Ilford Inkjet Photo Papers
With HP Pigment Inks



Posted Feburary 24, 2018



Posted August 22, 2011

Print Permanence Ratings for Tecco Photo and
Fine Art Papers With Epson, Canon, and
HP Pigment Inks



Posted April 20, 2011
Press Release

"Premier Imaging Products and Wilhelm Imaging Research Announce Comprehensive Testing of PremierArt GenerationsFine Art Papers and Canvas"

Press Release

Posted March 2, 2009

Print Permanence Ratings for Harman Inkjet Papers with HP, Epson, and Canon Pigment Inks



Posted October 22, 2008
Print Permanence Ratings for Hahnemuhle Inkjet Papers with Epson UltraChrome K3 Pigment Inks




Posted October 20, 2008

Print Permanence Ratings for Epson DURABrite Pigment
Inks and Epson Photo Paper vs. Store-Brand and Other Non-Genuine, Third-Party
Inks and Photo Papers

durabrite

Posted September 11, 2007

Article from "The Hard Copy Supplies Journal"
Published by

May 2006
"WIR Testing Finds Aftermarket Inks Are Inferior to OEM"
"Test Results from Wilhelm Imaging Research indicate that the image permanence of photos printed with aftermarket products is far inferior to those printed with OEM SKUs."
By Charles Brewer
Hard Copy



Posted May 25, 2006

Article from
"The Hard Copy
Supplies Journal"
Published by

March 2008

"At Least for Ink Jet Print Permanence, WIR and Kodak Mend Fences"

By Charlie Brewer



March 2008


Article In
"Inkjet NEWS and Tips"
From
Salt Lake City, Utah USA

"Perspective on Real-World Ink Costs and Production Printing"
By Chris Bair
Image


Posted January 30, 2008

Article from
Posted June 28, 2006

"European third party ink jet inks dealt major blow by latest Wilhelm tests "
By Ian Burley
Digital Photography Now
dpNOW



Posted June 28, 2006

Article from

Magazine (Russia)
August 2006

"Fading Warning"

By Alexey Erokhin

Article in Russian About Print Permanence And the Poor Stability of European Third Party Inks and Photo Papers

Russia


Posted July 30, 2006

Article from on
The Poor Permanence of
Many Third-Party Inks
!



September 2003

Article from on
The Potentially Huge Impact
Of the Choice Of Inkjet Paper
On Image Permanence!


fade factor

November 2002

from
PCWorld Magazine
(2001-2003)

Article from

July 8, 2005

"Lack of Standards Sparks Inkjet Photo Fade Debate"

"How long inkjet-printed photos last depends on who you ask, experts say."
By Tom Spring

Canon


Posted September 2, 2005

Article In
"Inkjet NEWS and Tips"
From
Salt Lake City, Utah USA

"Kodak Uses Different Testing Methods for Predicting Image Life"
By Royce Bair, Editor
Image


Posted November 10, 2004

Article from
April 1, 2005

"In Digital Age, A Clash Over Fading Photos"

By William M. Bulkeley

wsj


April 1, 2005

Article from

April 4, 2005

"Lack of Standard Sparks Inkjet Controversy"

By Greg Scoblete

twice


April 4, 2005

Article from March 2005

"How Long Will Your Digital Prints Last?
You May Be Surprised"

By Nils Miller
(Hewlett-Packard Company)

shutterbug

"Print Permanence:
An Epson White Paper"

(Epson America, Inc.)

epson


Minor Revision
September 2005

Article from

Magazine
May-June 2005

"Misinformation: What Does Archival Really Mean?"
By Rob Sheppard

Digital Photo Pro

"At the PMA trade show this past winter, discussion about the life of prints, from inkjet to dye-sub came up again, this time with some industry in-fighting."



Posted May 28, 2005

Two articles from
April 3, 2005

"How long will your digital prints really last? Good question"
"Quality of ink, paper important, but test standards remain unsettled"

By Ben Rand



See Companion Article:
"Preventing a Digital Fade to Black"

By Ben Rand



Article From
Dec/Jan 2005
"For Keeps"

By Keith Shipton
"Some Inkjet Paper and Inks Now Produce Longer-Lasting Images Than Conventional Photographic Paper....But, It's Certainly Not True of Every Combination."
WIR and Kodak Image Permanence Test Methods Reviewed


Article From
Newspaper
Sydney, Australia
November 25, 2004

"Fade to Black"
By Charles Wright
"Kodak is fighting a battle with the rest of the photography industry over the longevity of its inkjet printing papers..."


Article From
From
Jan/Feb 2005
"An Interview with
Henry Wilhelm of
Wilhelm Imaging Research"

"The noted image-permanence researcher details the history of the field and considers the future of photography."

By Paul Schranz


Article From
"The Fine Art of Digital Printing, Part 3"

Author David Em from the Byte Media Lab discusses why "Kodak Years" must be interpreted differently from "Wilhelm Years" as they relate to print display permanence ratings.



Posted July 26, 2004

Article
from

"Will my inkjet prints last as long as traditional photos? Yes, but only if you choose printers, inks, and papers wisely"

Interview article by Ray Work on accelerated test methods and the permanence of inkjet photographs.

Interview Article from

"The Archival Quality of Digital Print Media: A Conversation With Henry Wilhelm, The 'Guru' of Image Permanence"

By Chris Maher and Larry Berman (with editorial comment by George Schaub)



November 2003

Article From

"Life has gotten even shorter in digital age — Technology raises issues of obsolescence, data 'rot'"
Author Edward C. Baig discusses obsolescence of digital hardware, software, file formats, problems with the preservation of CDs and DVDs, and the permanence of digitally printed photographs.




Posted July 27, 2004

Article From
May-June 2004
"Misinformation: The (Non?) Permanence of Inkjet Prints"
By Rob Sheppard

"Myth: Inkjet prints fade too quickly to be used for fine-art printing"


Posted June 30, 2004

Digital Photography
Article from

Print Display Permanence data provided by Wilhelm Imaging Research, Inc.
Article also features digital photography pioneer .
US News

by David LaGesse

Video with Henry Wilhelm Discussing Print Permanence Testing, a Photographer's Legacy, and the Greatly Improved Permanence of New Epson UltraChrome HD, HDX, and PRO Inksets

WIR :: Canon

Posted April 1, 2018

Free Download!
"The Permanence and Care of Analog and Digital Color Photographs
"
"Forty-Seven Years of Research and Publications: 1966 to 2013"
"The Wilhelm Analog and Digital Color Print Materials Reference Collection: 1971 to 2013"
By Henry Wilhelm, Carol Brower Wilhelm, Kabenla Armah, and Barbara C. Stahl
Vacuum Table
Paper Presented at the "FotoConsevacion2011: Thirty Years of Photograph Conservation Science" Conference
Logrono, Spain, June 20-23, 2011


Posted May 1, 2013

Free Download!
Low-Cost Tilt-Top Vacuum Table:

For Digital Capture of Newspapers, Photographs, Posters, Blueprints and Works of Art on Paper
A Step-by-Step Construction Guide v3.0
Vacuum Table
A publication of
The Center for the Image.org
in association with
Wilhelm Imaging Research, Inc.


Posted May 22, 2013

Article from 2007 International Symposium On Technologies For Digital Fulfillment
Las Vegas, Nevada USA
March 5, 2007

"A Survey of Print Permanence in the 4x6-Inch Consumer Digital Print Market in 2004-2007"
By Henry Wilhelm

Includes WIR Data for the NEWEST 4x6-inch Printers from Dell, Lexmark, Canon, Hewlett-Packard, and Epson

Also Includes WIR Display Permanence Ratings for
Digital Minilab
Silver-Halide Color Papers:

WIR/DPR Ratings (Years)
(40) Fujicolor Crystal Archive
(19) Kodak Edge Generations
(17) Konica (DNP) Impresa


Posted March 7, 2007

Print Permanence Ratings for
Epson L355 and L800 EcoTank
(Ink Tank System) Printers


Posted October 10, 2014

Print Permanence Ratings for
HP Ink Cartridges Refilled by Cartridge World, Office Depot, OfficeMax, Costco, Walgreens, 4inkjets.com and 123inkjets.com
Includes
List of Equivalent U.S. and European HP Inkjet Cartridge Numbers on Page 3


Updated September 24, 2012

Print Permanence Ratings for
Kodak Hero
9.1
All-in-One Printer and Kodak
Pigment Inks


Updated June 12, 2012

Print Permanence Ratings for
Kodak Hero 7.1
All-in-One Printer and Kodak
Pigment Inks


Updated June 12, 2012 Print Permanence Ratings for
Kodak Hero
6.1
All-in-One Printer and Kodak
Pigment Inks


Updated June 12, 2012 Print Permanence Ratings for
Kodak Hero
5.1
All-in-One Printer and Kodak
Pigment Inks


Updated June 12, 2012 Print Permanence Ratings for
Kodak Hero
3.1
All-in-One Printer and Kodak
Pigment Inks


Updated June 12, 2012
Print Permanence Ratings for
Kodak ESP Office 2170 Printer and Kodak Pigment Inks
Updated June 12, 2012
Print Permanence Ratings for Kodak ESP-C315 Printer and Kodak Pigment Inks

Updated July 11, 2011 Print Permanence Ratings for Kodak ESP-C310 Printer and Kodak Pigment Inks

Updated July 12, 2011
Print Permanence Ratings for Kodak ESP-9250 Printer and Kodak Pigment Inks

Updated July 12, 2011




Kodak Press Release

"Advanced KODAK Printing System With Proprietary Pigment Inks Delivers High Quality....While Maintaining Low Total Running Ink Costs"

Posted August 27, 2010

Print Permanence Ratings for
Lexmark Interpret S405 Printer and Lexmark Vizix Dye-Based Inks


Posted June 5, 2010


New Update!
Print Permanence Ratings for Kodak ESP Office 6150 Printer and Kodak Pigment Inks

Updated June 12, 2012


Print Permanence Ratings for Kodak ESP-7250 Printer and Kodak Pigment Inks

Updated June 12, 2012


Print Permanence Ratings for Brother MFC-490cw Printer and Brother Innobella Inks
Brother
Posted December 20, 2009

Print Permanence Ratings for Kodak ESP-5250 Printer and Kodak Pigment Inks

epson

Posted May 10, 2010

Print Permanence Ratings for Kodak ESP-3250 Printer and Kodak Pigment Inks



Posted November 14, 2009

Print Permanence Ratings for Brother MFC-6490cw Printer and Brother Innobella Inks
Brother
Posted August 24, 2009 HP Photosmart Express PE1000 Retail Kiosk Printer with HP Vivera Pigment Inks

Posted March 1, 2009 Print Permanence Ratings for Kodak ESP-9 Printer and Kodak Pigment Inks

epson

Posted October 5, 2008

Print Permanence Ratings for
Epson WorkForce 600 Printer and DURABrite Ultra Inks

Epson

Posted September 14, 2008

Print Permanence Ratings for
Epson Artisan 800 Printer and Epson Claria Inks

Epson

Posted September 6, 2008

Print Permanence Ratings for
Epson Stylus NX400 Printer and DURABrite Ultra Inks

Epson

Posted August 27, 2008

Print Permanence Ratings for Kodak ESP-3 Printer and Kodak Pigment Inks

epson

Posted June 23, 2008

Print Permanence Ratings for
Epson Stylus Photo RX595 All-in-One Printer
and Epson Claria Inks

Epson

Posted June 18, 2008

Print Permanence Ratings for
Epson Stylus CX9400Fax Printer and DURABrite Ultra Inks

Epson

Posted January 30, 2008

Announced on
February 8, 2008 at
Press Conference
With WIR and
in New York City

Press Release

"Kodak's Consumer Desktop Inkjet Printing Systems Achieve Best-in-Class Print Permanence Ratings from
Wilhelm Imaging Research"

Press Release

Posted February 25, 2008

Print Permanence Ratings for Kodak EasyShare 5300 Printer and Kodak Pigment Inks

epson

Posted January 30, 2008

Print Permanence Ratings for
Epson Stylus Photo R280 Printer and Claria Inks

epson

Posted January 16, 2008

Print Permanence Ratings for
Epson PictureMate Dash
(PM 260) Compact Printer

epson

Posted December 30, 2007

Print Permanence Ratings for
Epson Stylus Photo RX680 All-in-One Printer
and Epson Claria Inks

Epson

Posted December 30, 2007

Print Permanence Ratings for
Epson Stylus CX8400 Printer
and DURABrite Ultra Inks

Epson

Posted December 30, 2007

Print Permanence Ratings for
Epson Stylus C120 Printer
with DURABrite Ultra Inks

Epson

Posted December 10, 2007

Print Permanence Ratings for
Epson Stylus CX6000 Printer
and DURABrite Ultra Inks

Epson

Updated March 28, 2007

Print Permanence Ratings for
Epson Stylus CX5000 Printer
and DURABrite Ultra Inks

Epson

Updated March 28, 2007

Print Permanence Ratings for
Epson PictureMate Flash (PM 280) Printer

epson

Posted October 30, 2006

Print Permanence Ratings for
Epson Stylus Photo RX580 Printer and Claria Inks

epson

Posted November 28, 2006

Print Permanence Ratings for
Epson Stylus Photo R380 Printer and Claria Inks

epson

Posted November 29, 2006

Print Permanence Ratings for
Epson Stylus Photo R260 Printer and Claria Inks

epson

Posted November 30, 2006

Print Permanence Ratings for
Epson Stylus CX4800 Printer
and DURABrite Ultra Inks



Posted January 2, 2006

Print Permanence Ratings for
HP Photosmart 8450
and HP Vivera Inks


Posted June 29, 2005

Print Permanence Ratings for
HP Photosmart 8750 Printer
and HP Vivera Inks


Posted February 18, 2005

Print Permanence Ratings for
Lexmark Home
Photo Center P6250
and Lexmark Evercolor Inks


Posted June 22, 2005

Print Permanence Ratings for
Epson Stylus Photo R1800
and Epson UltraChrome
Hi-Gloss Inks

Updated February 14, 2005

Print Permanence Ratings for
Epson Stylus Photo R800
and Epson UltraChrome
Hi-Gloss Inks

Updated December 3, 2004

Print Permanence Ratings for
Epson Stylus Photo R300
and R320 Printers
and Epson Photo Inks



Updated June 18, 2005

Print Permanence Ratings for
Epson Stylus C86 and
Epson DURABrite Inks



Posted July 3, 2005

Print Permanence Ratings for
HP Deskjet 5550 Printer
and HP Inks



Updated May 28, 2005

Below are more general interest articles from newspapers, magazines, books, and websites

Article from
Germany
April 2006

"Interview: Henry Wilhelm Über Die Haltbarkeit Von Bildern"

"Von Apfeln, Orangen Und Wassermelonen" By Thomas Gerwers
Redakpionsleitung

Language: German

PROFifoto

"Wilhelm Imaging Research beschäftigt sich mit der Entwicklung ausgefeilter Testmethoden zur Haltbarkeit von Bildern und der Simulation von Langzeit-Alterungseffekten. Die Testergebnisse werden unter anderem von Epson, HP, Canon und Lexmark anerkannt, und dienen diesen Herstellern als Grundlage ihrer Aussagen zur Haltbarkeit von Prints. ProfiFoto sprach mit Henry Wilhelm über technologische Trends und Testmethoden."



Posted April 22, 2006

Article from Germany
May 2005

"Less Light at Kodak" By Hermann Will

Language: German

"The purpose of this article is to explain to the reader, test methods various companies use to predict lightfastness. Main theme: Kodak versus the rest of the industry."



Posted May 28, 2005

Article from
Camera Australia Magazine
January 2005

"How Long Will An Inkjet Print Last?"

By Trevern Dawes

"Inkjet printing continues to improve in quality and affordability, but the questions over print life persist. Trevern Dawes examines the situation, outlines the current accelerated fade testing methods and summarises the practices recommended to promote maximum print life."



Article from
April 2003

"The Quality of Digital Photography "
By Alexey Erokhin

Language: Russian

"All the major aspects of output affect the enjoyment of digital photography. It's important to consider printer speed as well as longevity and color gamut."



Posted May 28, 2005

New Update!
Print Permanence Ratings for
Epson SureColor P7000 and P9000 Printers with UltraChrome HDX Pigment Inks


Posted October 18, 2018

Print Permanence Ratings for
HP DesignJet Z6200 Photo
Production Printers and
HP Vivid Photo Pigment Inks

Posted Feburary 16, 2018

Epson News Release
“Epson SureColor P5000 Printer and HDX Inks Honored by Professional Photographer Magazine”

"WIR Print Permanence Data and Improved Skin Tone Longevity for Portrait and Wedding Photographs Cited"


Posted Sept 6, 2017

ChromaLuxe Press Release
"ChromaLuxe Achieves Three Times the Print Display Permanence Rating Compared to Silver-Halide Color Papers"
ChomaLux Press Release

Posted September 14, 2016

Epson News Release
“Epson Now Shipping Complete Line of Award Winning Legacy Papers”


Posted June 23, 2016

Epson News Release
“New Epson UltraChrome HDX Pigment Ink Technology Delivers the Highest Print Permanence Ratings Ever Achieved for Epson UltraChrome Inks”


Posted April 15, 2015


Final print permanence test results for the new HDX inks printed on a variety of media will be posted on the WIR website as soon as the data become available toward the end of this year.  It is one of the realities of the print permanence testing field that the more stable the print, the longer the tests take to complete.

Print Permanence Ratings for
the Canon Pro-1 Printer and
Canon LUCIA Pigment Inks



Posted October 24, 2012

Canon video interview with Henry Wilhelm about the history of photography, print permanence, and "the look and feel" of silver-gelatin and inkjet prints
August 3, 2012




Xerox iGen Photobook Page Permanence Report
Published by Xerox for the GRAPH EXPO Trade Show and Conference in Chicago, Illinois, October 7-10, 2012



Posted October 17, 2012 "HP Indigo Print Permanence"
Summary of WIR Permanence Testing of HP Indigo Photobook Pages and the Permanence of Displayed Prints

Published by HP Indigo for the DRUPA Trade Show and Conference in Dusseldorf, Germany, May 3-16, 2012



Posted May 14, 2012

Print Permanence Ratings for
HP Indigo Digital Presses and
Indigo Pigmented ElectroInks


Posted March 7, 2011

Print Permanence Ratings for
Epson Sylus Pro 4900 Printer and
New UltraChrome HDR Inks

Posted October 26, 2010


Print Permanence Ratings for
Canon imagePROGRAF iPF8300 Printer
and
Canon LUCIA EX Inks

Posted Sepember 2, 2010




Canon Press Release

"CANON iPF8300 with LUCIA EX Pigment Inks and CANON Media Recieves High Permanence Ratings From Wilhelm Imaging Research"

Posted October 3, 2010

Print Permanence Ratings for
Epson Stylus Pro GS6000 Printer and
Epson UltraChrome GS Solvent Pigment Inks

Posted July 20, 2010 Print Permanence Ratings for
Epson Stylus Pro 3880 Printer
and
Epson UltraChrome K3 With Vivid Magenta Inks

Posted April 14, 2010

Print Permanence Ratings for Epson Stylus Pro 7700 Printer and Epson UltraChrome With Vivid Magenta Inks
Updated April 28, 2010

Print Permanence Ratings for
Canon imagePROGRAF iPF6100 Printer and Canon LUCIA Pigment Inks
3800

Posted June 15, 2009

Print Permanence Ratings for
HP Designjet Z3200 Printer
and Vivera Pigment Inks
With Chromatic Red Ink
3800

Posted March 25, 2009

Print Permanence Ratings for
Epson Stylus Photo R2880 Printer
and New UltraChrome K3
With Vivid Magenta Inks
3800

Posted July 10, 2010
Print Permanence Ratings for
Epson Stylus Pro 7900 Printer
and New UltraChrome HDR Inks
3800

Updated April 25, 2010
Print Permanence Ratings for
Epson Stylus Pro 11880 Printer
and New UltraChrome K3
With Vivid Magenta Inks
3800

Updated April 23, 2010
Print Permanence Ratings for
Epson Stylus Pro 9880 Printer
and New UltraChrome K3
With Vivid Magenta Inks
3800

Updated April 24, 2010
Print Permanence Ratings for
HP Photosmart Pro B8850
13x19-inch Printer
and HP Vivera Pigment Inks
B8850

Posted January 15, 2008

Print Permanence Ratings for
Epson Stylus Photo R1900
13x19-inch Printer
and Epson UltraChrome
Hi-Gloss 2 Inks
R1900

Posted January 7, 2008

Print Permanence Ratings for
Canon PIXMA Pro9500
13x19-inch Printer
and LUCIA Pigment Inks
3800

Posted December 28, 2007

Press Release

"Entire Range of Harman Photo Papers Undergo Wilhelm Testing With Epson, Canon, and HP Professional Printers"

Press Release

Posted January 30, 2008

Print Permanence Ratings for
Epson Stylus Photo R2400
13x19-inch Printer
and UltraChrome K3 Inks
R2400

Updated December 28, 2007

Print Permanence Ratings for
HP Designjet Z3100 Printer and Vivera Pigment Inks
Z3100

Updated December 28, 2007

Print Permanence Ratings for
HP Designjet Z2100 Printer and Vivera Pigment Inks
Z2100

Updated December 28, 2007

Print Permanence Ratings for
Epson Stylus Pro 3800
17x22-inch Printer
and UltraChrome K3 Inks
3800

Posted September 25, 2006

Print Permanence Ratings for
Epson Stylus Photo 1400 13x19-Inch Printer and Claria Inks

1400

Posted March 7, 2007

WIR Press Release
Canon U.S.A., Inc. Endorses the Independent WIR Certified Image Permanence Testing Program and Seal, Joining Epson, Hewlett-Packard, and Lexmark in Providing Consumers with Standardized Print Longevity Ratings

Press Release

Posted April 8, 2005

Print Permanence Ratings for
HP Photosmart Pro B9180 13x19-inch Printer and New Vivera Pigment Inks


Updated December 28, 2007


February 28, 2006
February 23, 2006

February 23, 2006

Canon imagePROGRAF iPF5000 17x24-inch,
12-Ink Printer and New Lucia Pigmented Inks

February 21, 2006

WIR is currently testing the new printer, inks and media.
A review of preliminary test data indicates that prints made with the Lucia pigmented inks and select Canon photo and fine art papers will have WIR Display Permanence Ratings in excess of 100 years for color images and significantly beyond that for monochrome images.
Final test results will be posted when available.

Canon PIXMA Pro9000 and PIXMA Pro9500 13x19-inch, 10-Ink Printers

February 21, 2006

WIR is currently testing the ChromaLife100 dye-based Ink used with the Pro9000 and the Lucia pigmented inks used with the Pro9500 printer.
A review of preliminary test data indicates that prints made with the Lucia pigmented inks and select Canon photo and fine art papers printed with the Pro9500 will have WIR Display Permanence Ratings in excess of 100 years for color images and significantly beyond that for monochrome images.

Final test results will be posted when available.

Print Permanence
Ratings for
Epson Stylus Pro 9800 Printer
and UltraChrome K3 Inks


Updated July 1, 2005

Print Permanence
Ratings for
Epson Stylus Pro 4800 Printer
and UltraChrome K3 Inks


Posted September 3, 2005

Print Permanence
Ratings for
HP Designjet 130 Printer
and HP Vivera Inks


Updated June 30, 2005

Print Permanence
Ratings for
HP Designjet 90
and HP Vivera Inks


Updated July 2, 2005

Print Permanence
Ratings for
HP Designjet 5500/5500ps Printer
and HP UV Inks



Posted June 30, 2005

Print Permanence
Ratings for
HP Designjet 5000/5000ps Printer and HP UV Inks



Updated July 31, 2003

Print Permanence
Ratings for
Epson Stylus Pro 9600 Printer
and Epson UltraChrome Inks



Updated February 14, 2005

Print Permanence
Ratings for
Epson Stylus Pro 4000 Printer
and Epson UltraChrome Inks


Updated May 1, 2004

Noted Photographers
and Printmakers at Work
(Click on Images to Enlarge)

Mac Holbert of Manhattan Beach, California, holding a B&W photograph of actress Jane Fonda and her father, Henry Fonda, taken in 1968 by Pat York and printed with the new Epson Stylus Pro 4000.

, Los Angeles, California with a portrait of actress Jodie Foster printed with his Epson 9600. Joshua Greene, , Florence, Oregon, with a portrait of Marilyn Monroe printed with an HP 5000PS. Mac Holbert and Graham Nash of the pioneering fine art printmaker , Manhattan Beach, California, with a photograph by Stephen Wilkes printed with an Epson 9600.

, Berkeley, California, printing one of his landscape photographs with an Epson 9600.

for essay by Holmes on printing with his new Epson 9800.
May 10, 2005

for essay by Holmes on "Making Photographs."
May 10, 2005

Adamson David Adamson of printing with a 63-inch Mimaki JV4-160 in his Washington, D.C. studio. Adamson also uses Epson and ixia printers. Feidler

in Vienna, Austria, one of Europe's first digital fine art printmakers. Sam Sinclair and Stefan Fiedler, founder, printing with an Epson 9600. Other printers including an Iris 3047 are also used. Fiedler was also the organizer of the highly successful fine art digital printmaking exhibition and workshop.

johnson of Pacifica, California, making one of his large panoramic prints with an Epson 10000 in his fully-equipped studio and gallery. Johnson currently uses a digital scanning back for ultra-high resolution photographs.

 






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